talk is heard of survival these days: economic
survival, emotional survival,
physical survival. Many are predicting gruesome
occurrences for humanity and are making their preparations
for nuclear holocaust, complete economic collapse,
or giant earthquakes and the chaos and disorder they
It doesn't have to be nuclear war (although it certainly
enters our minds as a possibility); it could be a
strike, loss of work, tornado, earthquake, tidal wave,
civil disorder, winter storm, fire, or some other
disaster. It doesn't have to engulf the country or
the world; it may only affect a region, state, or
may not need emergency advice; but there always have
been disasters, and until the earth somehow inclines
to a more ordered state there undoubtedly will continue
to be. Prophets, politicians, scientists, and coffee-break
rhetoricians all predict difficulties. We hear about
earthquakes (try, for example, Revelations 6:12; Isaiah
13:10-13), wars, famine, pestilence, etc. See your
local newspaper for the latest of these happenings.
When these cataclysmic descriptions do not involve
one's own immediate situation, they seem far away.
When they do, they are all too real!
us proceed, then, with the basic assumption that times
will change, at least for some. And certain basic
skills could be useful-if not in fact necessary-for
comfort or perhaps even survival. And when a crisis
occurs, the time for preparation will be past.
SENSE of SURVIVAL" J
FIRST AID TIPS
Bites - plaintain poultice, a tea of plantain,
yarrow or horsetail 3- 4 cups a day.
Burns - remove clothing, if not stuck,
flush in cold water or apply cold cloths.
Apply burn ointment.
Choking - Heimlich maneuver.
Cuts, bruises - apply pressure if bleeding
and cayenne pwd,
Drowning - CPR, elevate feet, keep
Eye, object out - let eye tear, don't
rub, place a flax seed in eye till object
Fainting - lay on back, elevate feet
or bend over with head at knee level. CPR
Fractures - don't move if back/neck
injury, or unconscious. Treat for shock/bleeding.
Immobilize injury before moving.
Frostbite - don't rub, warm slowly
in tepid water, warm drinks, wrap in blankets.
Headache - a tea of Yarrow, Nettle,
Catnip or Mullein
Hypothermia - 1 dropperful Cayenne
tincture under tongue
Nosebleed - apply finger pressure on
upper lip, just below nose.
Shock - 1 dropperful cayenne tincture.
Lay on back, feet elevated.
Life has become
so specialized for most of us that many of the materials and methods
we would need in possible survival situations have no part or
function in our normal lives. Since it's always easier to spend
money on things that will be used often than on things that may
never be needed, some of these items could be incorporated into
hobby or recreation activities or other tactical purposes.
Keeping this dual-purpose concept in mind may modify some purchases.
The needs addressed here are: HEAT (including fuel and
cooking); LIGHT; SOFTWARE (clothing, bedding.
Etc.) HARDWARE (tools, materials), and MISCELLANEOUS.
almost any disaster those services providing heat and
light are among the first to be interrupted. Life can
become distressing without light and very uncomfortable
and even dangerous without heat. Plans should therefore
be made for alternative methods of heating and cooking.
Stoves, fires, cooking in the rough, fuels, are subjects
Many kinds of stoves can be thought of as emergency gear.
Wood and coal stoves, propane stoves, small camping stoves,
kerosene heaters, and other miscellaneous units all have
and Coal Stoves
The efficient metal stoves that became popular several
years ago are excellent auxiliary and emergency heating
and cooking devices. They are made to utilize coal, wood,
pellets and combinations of these fuels. The really good
stoves are expensive ($400-$3,500). Small cast-iron or
steel stoves of acceptable quality and low prices are
now hard to find, although they can be found in want ads
occasionally. A stove can even be made from a 55 gallon
oil-drum (kits $80), but EPA regulations
now largely preclude using all but the most efficient
are also some small, fold-up, light-gauge, portable metal
stoves, made to burn wood that are very effective for
short-term heating and cooking. Among them are the Pyromid,
the Raemco and the Sims.
These units weigh around twenty-five to fifty pounds and
fold up to a few inches thick by less than two feet square.
They have accessories such as ovens and various venting
(chimney) options, and most come with carrying cases.
Some surplus outlets carry military tent stove that has
a cast iron grate; they sell for a little over a hundred
dollars and make a good back up heater.
Anyone interested in buying a wood/coal stove should look
around and see what is available, and this look has to
include a Lehmans
sells to the Amish and looking through this catalog helps
in understanding the possibilities. A Fireplace can also
serve for heating and cooking. Cooking with a fireplace
requires a "hanger" or some type of grate to
White gas camping stoves and good backpacking stoves are
very effective cooking units. Many people worldwide cook
on small white gas stoves resembling the camping stoves.
Fuel is relatively expensive, however, and although most
types do contain stabilizers and may be stored safely
for a few years, it is generally not recommended for extended
The surging interest in camping and backpacking over the
past few years has promoted the development of a flock
of wonderful, light weight, efficient stoves. Many will
operate on almost any standard liquid fuel. MSR, Coleman,
Sigg and others make some great products.
range from less than fifty dollars to over a hundred.
If cared for in a reasonable manner they will last for
many years. The stoves using canned butane fuel are the
most convenient and easy to use. However, for bottom-line
long-term preparedness it may be better to buy one that
will operate on multiple liquid fuels, including kerosene.
The great thing about these little stoves is that they
are so light and compact and yet put out the heat of a
large one. For simplicity I recommend any Coleman 1 piece
stove like the one above. (No parts to attach or lose.)
The MSR model XGK weighs about a pound; will run on kerosene,
diesel, white gas, gasoline, and other similar fuels;
and it will boil water in three minutes.
For simplicity and no-hassle use the Coleman Peak1 or
exponent. (anything dual
in The Rough
Cooking and baking may need to be done on a stove or over
an open fire. A covered dutch oven or other heat-conductive,
covered pot can be used as an oven by placing it on top
of the stove. Flour sprinkled on the bottom of an oven
will slowly brown at 350 degrees to 400 degrees Fahrenheit.
Bread can be baked in such an oven or in an integral oven
on a stove if necessary, by placing the loaf directly
on the bottom without bread pans. A sprinkle of coarse
flour or cornmeal underneath the loaf will prevent sticking.
In some parts of the world people still bake in square
five gallon cans that have an opening in the side and
a grate fitted to the inside. The device is set on a stove
or near a fire.
A cast iron dutch oven can be placed on the glowing embers
of a fire and some other hot coals placed on top of it
to do the cooking, or the oven can be simply placed in
the hot fire bed if there is sufficient grease or water
in the container. If you are baking some type of bread
in a dutch oven you need to do some cooking from the bottom,
but it should be done mostly from the top. This is done
by removing the oven from the coals in the fire bed after
some cooking time and then setting it on the ground and
placing hot coals on the lid of the oven. The Volcano
stove is a popular cooking device using charcoal briquettes.
Cooking and heating with an open fire can be a "finger-warming"
experience for the unprepared. Here again, a small fire
is usually as effective as a large one. The hot coals
from a fire are usually easiest to use for cooking. Generally,
the flames do well for boiling and baking, and coals are
good for frying and broiling. Cast iron is king when it
comes to cooking on a fire, but other types of cookware
are also usable and considerably lighter.
If no cookware is available, cooking can still be done.
A green willow or branch (be sure to use a nontoxic woodsome
woods such as oleander are very poisonous) can serve as
a roasting stick similar to what would be used to roast
a hot dog. Roots, meat, breads, and much else, can be
cooked on a stick. An appropriately-shaped rock can also
be placed near the fire and used for a cooking surface.
(Warning: Never place wet rocks, such as one from a stream
bed or from wet ground, in or near a fire. They can violently
break apart or explode.) Also, water may be made to boil
by adding very hot stones from a fire to the cooking container.
Add food and cover the container until the food is done.
Any pot of food brought to a boil may be surrounded with
insulative material such as crumpled newspapers and kept
sufficiently hot to do a lot of cooking after the heat
Food may be steamed under a fire by lining a shallow pit
with leaves, grass or other green vegetation, placing
food in the vegetation-lined pit, covering it with more
leaves, covering that with one-fourth to one-half inch
of dirt or sand, and then building the fire directly on
top. Pull the fire away and retrieve the food when it
is done. This process usually takes at least an hour
depending on what is being cooked, the size of the fire,
and so on. Some foods can be cooked by simply wrapping
them with leaves and placing them in the coals of the
fire. Vegetables and some other food items may be coated
with mud or clay and cooked in the coals or the flames.
fires can become rather difficult without matches. It
is essential to store a good supply of matches in a solid,
waterproof, preferably metal container in at least two
locations around the house. Matches can be waterproofed
at home by dipping them in melted paraffin. Lighters may,
of course, be substituted for at least some of the matches.
The disposable butane lighters are quite inexpensive but
do not have an indefinite storage life. When building
an outdoor fire the most important thing to do to preserve
matches is to prepare the fire bed adequately before lighting
the match. Gather a copious supply of fine, dry, combustible
material as well as larger-size material. Fine branches,
shredded bark (light bark such as sagebrush or cedar are
very good for this), dry moss, dry shredded grass, deserted
birds' nests, and so forth will help get things going.
Some methods of lighting up without matches are flint
and steel, steel wool and batteries, and a bow drill.
With these methods, as with matches, preparation of the
fire bed is essential to success. It may seem a bit harsh
to say that the flint and steel and bow-drill routines
are not for the novice, but experience has shown it to
be true. It is not easy to make fires by these methods
unless you have made it a matter of substantial practice.
Flint and steel can produce sparks, but making a fire
from the sparks is difficult and when it is cold and damp,
it borders on the "not-likely" category. To
produce the spark a piece of "flint" (agate,
quartz, etc.) is struck with the back of a solid hunting
knife, the back of a closed blade of a pocket knife, or
other piece of steel. It takes practice to make good sparks.
Catch the spark in a well-prepared tinder bundle of the
most flammable materials you can find, close the material
around the spark, hold it up and gently blow it to a flame.
absence of light can do strange things to people. An emergency
source of light is essential. Flashlights, candles, lamps
and lanterns, light sticks and electrical generators are
all reasonably good auxiliary sources of light
households own at least one flashlight. (The problem
is that when it's not lost, the batteries are usually
dead or dying). It is a good idea to have a flashlight
in every vehicle and also one in a bed stand or under
your bed for night time emergencies. Alkaline batteries
are more expensive than carbon-zinc, but their shelf-life
is longer and they last about five times as long in use.
Keep the poles of stored batteries covered with nonconductive
material to prevent discharge, and store them in the refrigerator
or freezer for added shelf-life. Good batteries and a
low-watt globe can allow a flashlight to give ten hours
or more of continuous light. Krypton Star bulbs are among
the brightest, longest living, and best on the market.
A solar charger and rechargeable batteries are a great
Lights and lanterns employing the larger six-volt batteries
last much longer than ordinary flashlights The fluorescent
lanterns are also long lasting and give good light. Flashlights
attached to headbands are wonderful for hands-free operation.
Some lights are powered by a squeezable generator or "dynamo;"
they are labor-intensive but nice. Another option is the
Forever Light that can be stored for many years and then
activated by the addition of water for a few hours of
continuous light. There are also some new offerings that
have a built in solar charger that seem to work well.
For home & car the Maglite®
3 or 4 D cell
For camping & light weight + extra bright the
Candles are easy to use and handy. For safety, a good
holder should be part of the gear.' old-fashioned kind
like Scrooge used work nicely. A three-fourth inch diameter
candle will burn about one-half hour or a little longer
per inch of length. An increase in diameter to seven-eight
or one inch should give you double the burn time or more.
A two inch square candle should burn several hours (five
to seven) per inch.
Candles can be made from animal tallow, paraffin, wax,
or combinations of them. Beef tallo is especially good.
They may be molded in any convenient container: milk cartons,
cans, j cups, toilet paper rolls, other cardboard or plastic
containers, or anything else that seems suitable.
Wicks should be of cotton string. If you were in a pinch,
you could use some dried plant stems. Pithy ones such
as the center of mature cattail stems work fairly well.
The quality of wick material can be improved by soaking
it (before making the candles) in turpentine 01 solution
of one or two tablespoons of saltpeter (potassium nitrate
or sodium nitrate) and on half pound of lime in a gallon
of water for a few minutes, and then allowing it to dry.
Tallow should be rendered and cleaned before making candles.
Cut the tallow into small pieces and heat it over low
heat until it is all melted. (Odors may make it desirable
to do this outdoors if possible, but it is not necessary.)
Strain the melted fat through a cloth (save the piece
of cooked meat to eat or feed to animals) and then put
it back into the cleaned pot or kettle with some water.
Boil it for a few minutes, then cool it and remove the
clean tallow from the top Allow it to dry and then make
it into candles by melting it over low heat or in a double
boiler and either molding it in containers or dipping.
Dipping candles is done by dipping the wicks into the
melted fat and allowing them to cool. When the initial
dips cool enough but are not yet hard, roll them between
your hands or two boards to develop intimate contact between
the wick and tallow. Dip them into the hot tallow again
and allow them to cool. (This works very well during cold
weather when they can be cooled quickly.) Dip them again
and let them cool; and repeat the process until the candle
is the desired size. Several can be dipped at one time
by tying the wicks to a wire or stick or nailing them
to the edge of a board about two or three inches apart
for as many as can be dipped into your pot. Commercial
100-hour or 200-hour candles are available that have a
liquid fuel in a can with a wick. They work very well.
100 hour liquid candles burn nice but have the
potential to spill or leak.
Try any emergency type candle in a tin container with
Lamps and Lanterns
lamps of varying descriptions were very widely used for
many years. They are fairly easy to use and quite efficient.
According to my own calculations, ten gallons of kerosene
would give a few hours of light per day for a whole year.
In his book Family Storage Plan (Salt Lake City, Utah:
Bookcraft, Inc., 1966), Bob Zabriskie estimates that one
quart of kerosene will burn forty-five hours in a lamp
with a one inch wick. At this rate, a ten gallon supply
would burn 1800 hours, or 5 hours per day for 360 days.
A supply of spare wicks would also be necessary. Lamps
need not be fancy, but it is a good idea to make sure
they are not too cheaply built. Some will not turn the
wick up and down very well, and the mechanism for doing
so is easily broken. Hurricane lamps, railroad lamps,
plain lamps, fancy lamps, brass lamps, steel lamps, and
glass lamps all give about the same light. The kerosene
lamps with a mantle, such as those made by Aladdin, produce
a very bright light. However, the mantles break occasionally
(when the kids knock the lamps onto the floor), and this
makes the process of keeping and using them a bit more
complex and expensive. But for a bright light they are
the top of the line and very recommendable.
The black char that forms on the top of the wick should
be gently pinched off before lighting a kerosene lamp,
and the wick may occasionally need to be trimmed with
scissors. The chimney should be kept clean inside and
out. It can be wiped or washed clean. If it is washed,
make sure it is completely dry before being used. One
drop of water on it will probably cause it to crack when
the lamp is lit. It is a good idea to keep a fire extinguisher
or a container of sand or soda handy to extinguish a fire
in case the kerosene lamp is broken and a fire starts.
gas and propane lanterns give excellent light but consume
more fuel than wick-type kerosene lamps. A single-mantle
gas lantern will give approximately eight to nine hours
of light per pint of fuel. A two-mantle lantern gives
a little bit more light (about one-fourth to one-fifth
more) but uses about one and one-half times as much fuel
and is more expensive to buy and maintain. In my opinion
the single-mantle is the better choice. A propane lantern
will use approximately two-thirds the number of ounces
of fuel as a white gas lantern for similar results. Some
small backpacking stoves can double as lanterns with the
extra lamp attachments.
ultimate hardware kit would, of course, enable complete
self-sufficiency. This may not be possible for everyone,
but some hardware items should be part of every able-bodied
person. In simplest form, an emergency equipment kit should
contain a saw, pliers, ax, hammer, nails, adjustable wrench,
screwdrivers, mill file, hacksaw, sharpening stone, knife
or knives (at least a sturdy pocketknife), rope or cord,
visquene, shovel, pick and a pot and griddle suitable
for outdoor cooking. Other gardening tools, hand tools,
materials are also desirable
A bow saw is probably the most effective and the least
expensive for cutting firewood.
A carpenter's handsaw is also a useful tool and could
be very helpful in rebuilding after a disaster. Suitable
handsaws can be purchased for ten to twenty dollars each.
are very useful tools. A pair of plain straight pliers
will bend metal, pick a pot out of a fire, cut wire, bend
wire, loosen fasteners, and perform many other necessary
functions. Poor quality pliers may break in a hard "pinch;"
go for qualitynot necessarily price.
An ax is useful for trimming and fitting timbers, splitting
firewood, chopping firewood, driving stakes (single-bit
ax), and so on. The rounded edge of the ax as it comes
from the factory is okay for splitting wood, but it is
poor for chopping. It may be reshaped with a slow-turning
grinder or a filea fast-turning grinder can overheat
the metal and change the temper or hardening.
Be cautious with an ax; many have been injured in a moment
of haste. Clear obstructions above and around the target
and on the ground before chopping. When the ax handle
loosens from the head, as happens to all axes in normal
use, small wedges are usually driven into the end of the
handle to tighten it or the top few inches of the handle
(including the head) may be soaked in oil to cause the
wood to swell.
good solid hammer and a supply of nails are tools
of great use. By gaming permission to pick up dropped
nails around a construction site, a variety can normally
be gleaned in a little time; or a variety of small (such
as dry wall nails), medium (8d) and medium-large (16d)
nails could be purchased.
An adjustable wrench, and several small and large
straight-blade and Phillips' screwdrivers are minimal
tools for taking care of many fastening and unfastening
chores that are bound to occur and for turning off utilities.
Socket sets, end wrenches, and locking pliers such as
Vise Grips are also useful.
Mill files eight inches long or longer are good
for shaping metal objects, including hoes, shovels, and
axes. Store at least two or three. A sharpening stone
with coarse and fine sides is necessary to shape and keep
a good edge on knives and other tools. A hacksaw is used
for cutting metal, and metal shears are used for cutting
light-gauge sheet metal.
are very useful, and a pocketknife and a rigid or lock-blade
knife are "must have" survival tools for skinning
and cleaning game, gathering plant food and fiber, and
ten thousand or so other miscellaneous uses. Some think
of knives in terms of self-defense, but for most of humanity
the probability of using a knife as a self-defense weapon
is probably not very great. Yet, a knife is an indispensable
tool for survival. They do not have to be fancy in shape
or anything elsejust good steel and construction,
and proper edge. The blade of the rigid or lock-blade
knife should be at least four inches long. Features such
as hollow-handles storage compartments and serrated back
edges for sawing may or may not be desirable. Plain, good
quality custom-made knives start at around $100.
Rope and string are useful for lashing, clothesline,
tethering animals, and many other purposes. Strong, inexpensive
nylon string and a little rope should handle most needs.
If you live in a rural area, it should be easy to pick
up a few pieces of used baling twine for nothing but the
effort. Most farmers are glad to get rid of it.
is one of those forgotten entities that can do wonders
in a makeshift situation. Remember the old saying, "We
keep most things going with spit and balin' wire."
Baling wire or a small roll of form wire (used with concrete
forms) is very inexpensive. Pliers are a must for working
sheeting can keep you and other things dry, make a solar
still, help keep a child's bed dry, or serve any one of
many other needs. Rolls of plastic are available at hardware
stores and other outlets. An insulation contractor or
supplier may be able to save you some money on a whole
roll. A four-mil thickness is common and a good all-around
shovel is an absolutely essential survival tool
for every able-bodied person, and more than one would
be good for barter or prolonged use. A shovel can help
in constructing ditches, wells, reservoirs, shelters,
and latrines; cleaning house (when it gets to that point);
harvesting crops; and much else.
Absolutely do not buy a cheap shovel if you plan to do
much work with it.
pick and/or a mattock and digging bar are
also useful for digging in hard ground. (And most of it
is!) They are almost tools of necessity for digging. If
your nuclear war survival plans include the possibility
of building an expedient shelter, or if you can foresee
any other substantial digging project, then acquire at
least a pick. Hard or rocky ground is almost impenetrable
without one. A mattock has a broad face which can also
speed up the digging chores.
cooking pot and griddle suitable for cooking
under adverse conditions are necessities.
Cast iron is unequaled for outdoor cooking. Household
wares may be adaptable for this under
necessity, but they may never be the same again after
being used over an open fire. Other
important kitchen hardware might include a can opener,
kitchen spoons, pancake turner,
dishpan, bowls, and a bucket or two.
gardening tools that could be considered are a
hoe, a rake, and a mattock or grubbing hoe. A grubbing
hoe is, to me, one of the most useful hand gardening tools
available. A large-wheel hand cultivator is also a useful
hand tools useful for construction are a plane (a
jack plane or a block plane are good for all-around use
in planing wood articles), a chisel (for making holes,
cutting, and shaping), a miter box (for cutting true angles),
a level, a carpenter's square and a tri-square (for cutting
true angles, rafters, and stairways), a brace and bits
and/or a hand drill (for boring in wood), a chalk line,
a measuring tape, and a carpenter's pencil and chalk or
crayon. Some materials that might be added to the list
where they are practical to store and might be used could
include a sheet or two of plywood, chicken wire (for animal
cages), caulking, screws and bolts, and lumber.
"software" includes clothing, keeping warm
(including discussions on heat loss, insulation, layering,
and an alternative cold-weather clothing system), bedding,
and duffle. Temporary shelter (including tents) is discussed
in Chapter 12, "Shelters."
As a practical emergency preparation that requires no long-term
extra expenditure, it is prudent to have at least one
or two extra sets of sturdy clothing on hand. Where
children are involved, it may not be as easy; but, speaking
from experience, it is easily possible to buy many items
that anticipate needs as long as a year in advance. This
is especially true of basic clothing.
Sewing is a practical skill to acquire and depend
on for emergency clothing needs. Heavyweight denim, flannel,
and other yardage can be bought and tucked away with needles
and thread for future use. Patterns can be purchased or
worn-out clothing can be used for patterns. Don't forget
buttons, snaps, zippers, patches, scissors and other sewing
aids. Some companies make treadle attachments for converting
an electric sewing machine to manual use in case of loss
of electrical power.
Special precautions are in order to protect against cold
and wet. If ordinary conditions do not require you to cope
with weather extremes, it may not be fresh on the mind;
but with a little exposure to harsh weather, it does not
take long to realize how uncomfortable life could be.
A poncho or raincoat and some waterproof foot covering will
help reduce exposure in wet weather. A good lightweight
nylon poncho is more expensive but it may be a bargain in
the long run. The very cheap disposable, see-through ponchos
that fold up into a wallet-size package are made of a more
flexible material and are actually not bad for one or a
few uses. At very least, one of these or a good-sized piece
of polyethylene sheeting is advisable for the purpose. Rubber
boots or galoshes are effective for keeping feet dry.
Good sturdy footwear is practical, if not necessary,
equipment for nearly every survival situation. Survival
against the elements means worklargely outdoor workand
that kind of work is hard on shoes. The rubber-bottomed
boots with felt inserts are great for keeping the feet warm
in cold weather, but those that are poorly made are difficult
to walk in.
Many leather boots are temporarily water-repellent, but
with use they lose their repellency. However, some boots
are available with Goretex liners which do hold out the
water. A good leather dressing appropriate to the type of
leather in the boots will do as much to preserve and waterproof
the leather as about anything, and a supply of it should
certainly be part of a storage program. Shoe polish works
very well if the leather is made to receive it. Wax or silicone
works well on most leather shoes and boots. Other dressings
are available for the others.
couple of pairs of good heavy wool or good synthetic socks
are a must for rough going. They give protection, comfort,
good wear, and warmth. For those not accustomed to heavy
going, it may be good to know that changing socks every
day is good practice. Rinse the dirty pair out and dry them
while wearing another pair. This helps prevent foot disease
and helps keep feet warm during cold weather. Even if it
is not possible to wash the pair not being worn, just letting
them "dry out" for a day helps.
In cold weather or when you must do a great deal of walking
or work on foot, wearing a thin pair of socks under a thicker
pair can help both to keep the feet warm and to prevent
blisters. The inner socks made of polypropylene, silk or
other synthetic material can help keep feet warm by conducting
moisture away from the surface of the feet.
Heat boots up and melt beeswax into the seams and
stitchings of boots to help repel water.
When buying boots find the most light weight boot with the
most durable leather & sole.
If you are stuck somewhere without heat, cover all of your
body you can; arms, head, neck and so on.
Even though you may feel warm you still may be losing body
heat from exposed areas.
Don't wait until you feel cold. Stay dry; moisture is one
of the greatest deterrent to keeping warm. Expedient materials
such as newspaper and foam from chair cushions can be used
very effectively. I have heard some amazing stories of transients
and other indigent people keeping alive in extreme conditions
using newspaper for covering and insulation. When it is
very cold, it is important not to get damp with sweat. Do
not work hard enough to work up a sweat in these conditionsespecially
in an emergency situation where a warm shower or even a
warm fire may not be close by.
Down is a premier insulation for outdoor cold-weather
clothing. It is durable to washing, it has the best warmth
for weight performance, and garments made with it for insulation
drape well on the bodythey look good and hug the body.
Down is also usually the most expensive insulation material.
If an insulated garment is not expensive, it is probably
filled with feathers or something else; but it is probably
not down-filled. Piles and fleeces made of polyester, nylon,
and acrylic are all good insulators in medium-weight garments.
Wool is also very good.
Polyester insulations are the closest thing (feature for
feature) to down that has been made by man. They are even
superior to down in some respects. Some of the names are
Polarguard 3 D, Lite Loft, Micro Loft, Primaloft, Hollofil
808, Hollofil II, and Quallofil. Variations in size, shape
and treatment of the fibers determine the features. Hollofil
808 is a short (about two and one-half inch long) hollow
fiber. (The hollow fibers provide good insulation and less
weight.) Hollofil II is similar to Hollofil 808, but it
has a silicon-based coating that makes it more compressible,
more resilient, andof coursemore expensive.
Quallofil is similar to the Hollofils but was more recently
developed and has more holes running through the center.
It is more thermally efficient, compressible, and resilient.
Polarguard 3 D is the newest of the Polarguard series and
has captured a major following in the sleeping bag market.
Polarguard is a continuous filament. Lamilite (used in Wiggy's
bags), also a continuous filament, is very effective. Lite
Loft is bonded and is lofty and warm for weight.
There are also two products which are more dense and give
greater insulation for a given thickness than those mentioned
above; these are Thinsulate from 3M and Thermolite from
DuPont. They are made from very fine fibers and provide
good insulation without high bulk. If there is a weakness
associated with these two insulations, it is that they may
be slightly heavier for a given warmth and may not conform
to the body as well as the lighter insulations. They are
very useful where bulk is a concern, however, and are widely
used. Many cold-weather gloves are made using these for
All these synthetic insulations retain very little moisture.
If a garment or sleeping bag becomes wet, just shake or
wring most of the moisture out of it and most of the insulative
quality will be regained.
Cold weather clothing should be worn in layers that can
be added or removed to be able to stay at just the right
An outer garment to protect from wind and water is an essential
element in keeping Old Man Winter out. This outer layer
is sometimes a separate garment and sometimes just an appropriate
facing on the insulated piece of clothing. Materials such
as Gore-Tex are popular for this purpose. They are designed
to allow water in vapor form to pass out through the fabric
while at the same time not allowing liquid water to pass
in through it. These materials are more expensive than most
other fabric but are very effective. Better grades are more
effective and cost more.
Poplin (cotton, cotton-nylon, and cotton-polyester) is also
very durable and very popular for the outer shell, as is
all-nylon. These fabrics are not waterproof, but can be
made nearly so by weave and fiber size and by treating with
Scotchguard or Drifab (from Amway), or some other similar
For keeping the wet out, nonbreathahle fabrics such as coated
nylon are made into rainwear and are much less expensive
than Gore-Tex and similar products, and in many uses they
are just as serviceable and much less expensive. They do
not allow vapor to go through the fabric, however, and allow
becoming wet from the inside. Proper design and construction
of an outer garment, allowing for opening and closing and
other features, can lend much to its usability.
Wear what is appropriate for keeping warm under the outer
garment. In extreme conditions a well-insulated coat might
be worn inside the outer shell, with a pile jacket or wool
sweater inside the coat and an appropriate shirt and underwear
next to the skin.
The legs may not need as much insulation as the torso, but
underwear, a heavy pant and an outer shell are still necessary
in extremes. The hands also need a protective outer shell
with a fairly dense insulation underneath. Wool or polyester
insulation with a nylon or leather outer glove or mitt are
In many cases layers are combined using modern technology
to produce some very effective products. An example would
be a Gore-Tex glove with a leather palm, insulated with
Thinsulate and lined with a synthetic flannel.
It is necessary to have adequate bedding to handle things
in your climate area in case the furnace thermostat and
the controls on your electric blanket are no longer able
to do the job. If you are a camping enthusiast and have
a good sleeping bag as part of your gear, that is great.
But if you never camp and do not have an extra $100 to $200
each to buy good sleeping bags, then count on an extra two
or three blankets per person for emergency purposes. Wool
blankets are tough, warm, and very good for outdoor use.
Synthetic blankets have many of the same qualities, are
lighter, and retain very little moisture; and an inexpensive
one can be purchased for as little as $5 at discount stores.
Inexpensive plain wool blankets can be bought for around
$15 to $30 new or from a surplus store for about $10 to
$30, used or new. Down sleeping bags are great for their
weight; but they are expensive and the down clumps together
when it becomes wet, making it much less insulative. Qualofil,
Polarguard, Lite Loft, and Lamilite (used in Wiggy's
bags) are well-proven sleeping bag insulators.
you are bedding down outdoors, a waterproof ground cloth
is essentiala function that is served well by a good
ponchoand a tent is desirable. (If you do all of your
sleeping indoors you may not know how much moisture accumulates
as dewnot to mention snow and rain.) A piece of plastic
or waterproof tarp will also make a good ground cover. An
insulative pad is very desirable as well. Pads range from
about $7 or $8 for a small, thin one to around $75 for deluxe
models. (See recommendations below)
Any of the pads are much better than nothing.
The plastic-aluminum foil laminate that has become known
as "space blanket" or "emergency blanket"
is very light and effective for holding body warmth. It
reflects body heat back to the wearer. Put one of these
around you or over your bedding in extreme conditions and
they will help retain heat to an amazing extent. The drawback
to using them over clothing is that they do not allow the
body moisture to escape. As water vapor leaves the body
(a normal, ongoing process), the vapor is trapped by the
material, condenses to water, and dampens the clothing or
bedding. Because of this, these devices should normally
be used only when it is fairly cold or in the absence of
something better. It may sound strange, but these emergency
blankets would actually be more effective if they were worn
next to or close to the skin to give a vapor barrier. This
is also true of using one in a sleeping bagput it
close to your skin. If this escapes your logic, reread the
above discussion on vapor barriers and also try it out for
Another similar product now on the market (Texolite) is
a shiny, heat-reflective porous material which allows water
vapor to pass through it. It is sewn into sleeping bags
and reflects body heat back to the body but allows the water
vapor to escape.
Expedient blankets can be woven from thatch and reeds. Even
cuddling up in a pile of dry leaves or grass can keep you
warmbut be sure to keep them dry.
Recommendations Sleeping Bags:
For car camping or sleep over type use, any inexpensive
fiberfill bag will do.
For long term backpacking/survival a goose down bag like
the one above because it will compress to a very small size
and is lightweight.
For years I have been using a simple combination
of a Therm-A-Rest
"Ridge Rest®" (closed cell foam pad)
and "Camp Rest®" (self inflating air
mattress). The key to staying warm is keeping your body
off the ground.
Keeping gear (especially a 14-day
Emergency Kit) contained and portable is a necessary
part of organizing it. For that reason, a few ideas are
included on the subject. Backpacks are excellent containers
to use for some kinds of basic equipment, if you have them.
They come in a wide variety of features, quality, and sizes.
Some features to look for are construction waterproof material.
If you are not a backpacker (or maybe even if you are),
duffle bags are also very good containers. They are light,
tough, inexpensive, and easily carried. The new military
issue duffle bag and similar commercial models have conveniently
arranged shoulder straps, which allow them to be carried
like a pack. New bags can be purchased at sporting goods
stores and from mail order suppliers, and new and used ones
are available at most military surplus store. Waterproof
bags are a little more expensive but may be worth the cost.
In a pinch, if you had to leave home and pack things in
a hurry, you can use the "Santa Claus* bundle and throw
everything into the sleeping bag.
may not seem a good investment as emergency gear for someone
who would never otherwise use one, but if it would be otherwise
used it could also serve as a temporary shelter in an emergency.
And tents are an excellent choice for emergency shelter.
Many sheepherders and others have spent time fairly comfortably
during even extreme conditions in a good tent with a stove
to huddle up to.
Two - or three-person tents are available at a great
variety of prices. The design, weight of material, quality
of construction, and name all dictate price. It is often
possible, for example, to see two three-man tents of nearly
identical design in a sporting goods store where one is
half the price of the other. Retaining quality while reducing
weight is what usually raises the price. Guarantees also
cost a little extra.
If you are willing to make a few simple repairs down the
road and are not going to be using he tent more than a few
days a year, an inexpensive one may serve as well as an
expensive one except in specialized applications. Quality
A rain fly is a must in a small nylon tent unless
some special design feature otherwise provides the needed
protection, and my experience causes me to suspect the usefulness
of many of the "special designs" except in top-of-the-line
models. The nylon alone may hold out the wet for a time
if left untouched; but if you touch the inside it will leak,
and in a small tent it is next to impossible not to touch.
Seam sealer seals the tent seams against moisture leakage.
Canvas is a durable and long lasting tent material.
Treatment of the canvas helps improve performance and longevity.
Canvas tents are generally stable in the wind and can make
a rather acceptable home away from home. Some of the large
lightweight tents are rather unstable in the wind.
In any case tents should be given due consideration as emergency
shelter. In hard times a tarp or a piece of polyethylene
sheeting can be fashioned into a tent or lean-to.
For car camping or large families a tough canvas tent is
a great option. Kirkhams
For backpacking or small families a 2-3 person 3 season
tent is a good choice. Sierra
For Price- A cheap 2-3 person dome tent is easy to set up
and costs under $30 at most Wal Marts.
is a common saying among realtors that there are three factors
to consider when building a shelter; location, location,
and location! Even temporary shelters should be built observing
these three important rules. A shelter is not just protection
but should give a sense of security and comfort as well.
Even though building a suitable shelter may take some long
hours of work, it is probably worth the investment. Pick
a dry area away from gullies or high ridges or peaks to
reduce the dangers of flash floods, high winds, and lightning.
Be observant of possibilities of flash floods or rock or
snow slides. Locate near a usable water supply, firewood,
and building materials for the shelter. Insulate yourself
from the ground with bark, boughs, brush, wood, or other
dry insulative materials.
shelters may make good use of gear such as plastic or ponchos,
and natural features such as banks, rocks, and vegetation:
a simple lean-to built against a tree or some natural formation
can get you by in a period of short-term need. Remember
that breezes usually blow up canyons in the morning and
down canyons in the evening. By moving up the side of a
canyon even a few yards and/or taking advantage of natural
barriers, the wind factor can be reduced considerably. Also,
facing the entrance of a shelter in the northern hemisphere
toward the winter sun (south to southwest), or away from
the summer sun (north to northeast), or away from the wind
can make it much easier to keep the interior at the desired
of miscellaneous items should be considered as good survival
equipment. One of the most important is writing tools. Pens,
pencils, and notebooks are good not only for recording important
details but also for recording important thoughts and feelings,
writing letters, and for recreation. It may be hard to think
of writing as recreation, but under some circumstances it
could bring a welcome relief from other duties and provide
an outlet of expression by putting awkward moments to useful
purpose. In addition, important papers and other valuables
should be kept available and "found."
A supply of cleaning agents and toiletries are important.
This should include laundry detergent, all-purpose or dish
detergent, germicide, hand soap, rags, bleach, rubbing alcohol,
razor and blades, toothpaste, and deodorant.
A sewing kit such as mentioned earlier in "Software"
is something that could be easily overlooked.
and thread are very inexpensive and easy to store. As mentioned
earlier, some manufacturers make treadle attachments for
sewing machines so that they can be made to function in
the absence of electricity. A "Speedy Stitcher"
for sewing leather and other tough jobs is also desirable.
As previously mentioned (14-day
Emergency Kit), dust masks could be popular items in
more than just a nuclear war scenario. Earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions, storms, and other natural disasters can also
cause excessive dust in the air. Fairly good rubber masks
with dust filters and valves can be purchased at safety
appliance stores for as little as ten dollars. Better ones
cost more. Paper or disposable masks are much less.
It has already been mentioned in the sections on gardening
and preparing grains that a supply of seed and a hand-operated
grinder could be valuable emergency storage items. Even
more important is experience in using these and other survival
measures. Why not start growing a garden now? Why not practice
cooking with whole grains now? It can increase health, save
money, and promote a feeling of independence.
BIOLOGICAL PLAGUES & NUCLEAR DISASTERS
OTHER BIOLOGICAL PLAGUES
the Natural Way
THREAT OF NUCLEAR EXPOSION
threat of nuclear explosion or nuclear power
plant sabotage is as great as or greater than exposure
to biological agents. With the number of nuclear power
plants, prime military targets, and the prevailing
wind patterns, there is probably no location in the
U.S. that is totally protected from nuclear fallout
resulting from a nuclear accident or explosion.
to help protect yourself and your loved ones from
a nuclear accident should now be at the top of your
thyroid acts much like an iodine sponge. The absorption
of radioactive iodine can be prevented by saturating
the thyroid with safe forms of iodine prior to exposure
to radioactive fallout. Taking iodine prior to exposure
can limit the uptake of radioactive iodine to as little
as one percent of the total iodine absorbed, and prevent
the problems and cancer it causes.
Iodide: In all developed countries, except the
U.S., the government stockpiles potassium iodide (KI)
tablets and makes them readily available to its citizens.
It would be to your benefit to keep an oral potassium
iodide supplement on hand at all times. To be effective,
the tablets need to be taken no sooner than 48 hours
prior to fallout exposure and absolutely no later
than 16 hours after exposure . Iodine should be taken
several hours prior to exposure and every 24 hours
thereafter for at least 15 days (or until one day
after exposure, whichever is longer) A good source
is from a company called KI45U, 212 oil Patch Lane,
Gonzales, Texas 78625.
Adults and children over 12............ 130 mg
Children 3-12 years old.....................65 mg
Children1 month to 3 years old...........32 mg
Children under a month old................16 mg
Make your own Potassium Iodide Solution:
will need one bottle of crystalline or granular potassium
iodide (found at chemical supply
houses, which may be listed under chemicals in the
yellow pages, photo supply stores,
or the high school or college science lab.
a small glass bottle (2 oz.) about 60 percent full
with the potassium iodide crystals. Then pour clean,
room temperature water over the crystals until the
bottle is 90 percent full. Close the bottle with a
non-metallic screwtop and shake vigorously for several
minutes. When allowed to sit for a short time, there
would be undisolved crystals settling to the bottom
of the bottle. This tells you the solution you made
is totally saturated. With this saturated solution,
the adult dosage would be four drops every 24 hours.
A 3-12 yr. old child would take 2 drops every 24 hours.
MOST INFORMATIVE REPORT ON
NATURAL ANTIDOTES TO BIOLOGICAL
Vitamin C, Melatonin, Glutathione, Wild Oregano Oil,
and Huperzine A
Americans have grown so accustomed to relying upon
prescription medications that they will probably have
difficulty believing there are natural compounds as
close as the kitchen cupboard that are potent antidotes
against biological warfare. These natural antibiotics
and antioxidants may give unvaccinated people who
have been exposed to biological or chemical weapons
enough time to secure professional care. They may
even save lives. It is a fact that chaotic events
will make it difficult to obtain appropriate treatment
even if it were available. So we must learn more about
natural antidotes. Furthermore, it is clear that antidotes
to biological attacks need to be employed at home
or the workplace in an expedient manner. The idea
of the masses running to obtain medical care or vaccines
at doctor's offices, clinics or hospitals needs to
be abandoned if civilian defense against biological
weapons is to become a reality.
Since anthrax is the most feared toxin it will be
addressed first. The Garlic information Center in
Britain indicates that deadly anthrax is most susceptible
to garlic. Garlic is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that
even blocks toxin production by germs. [Journal Nutrition,
March 2001] Before vaccines were developed against
polio, garlic was used successfully as a prophylactic.
In one test garlic was found to be a more potent antibiotic
than penicillin, ampicillin, doxycycline, streptomycin
and cephalexin, some of the very same antibiotic drugs
used in the treatment of anthrax. Garlic was found
to be effective against nine strains of E.coli, Staph
and other bugs. [Fitoterapia, Volume 5, 1984] Freshly
cut cloves of garlic or garlic powder may be beneficial.
The antibiotic activity of one milligram of allicin,
the active ingredient in garlic, equals 15 units of
penicillin. [Koch and Lawson, Garlic: The Science
and Therapeutic Application, 2nd edition, Williams
& Wilkins, Baltimore 1996] Garlic capsules that
certify their allicin content are preferred and may
provide 5-10 milligrams -of allicin, which is equivalent
to 75-150 units of penicillin. The anthrax bacterium's
toxicity emanates from its ability to kill macrophage
cells which are part of the immune system.
Studies have shown that sulfur-bearing antioxidants
(alpha lipoic acid, N-acetyl cysteine, taurine) and
vitamin C, which elevate levels of glutathione, a
natural antioxidant within the body, counters the
toxicity produced by anthrax. [Molecular Medicine,
November 1994; Immunopharmacology, January 2000; Applied
Environmental Microbiology, May 1979] The above sulfur
compounds can be obtained from health food stores
and taken in doses ranging from -100-500 mg."Vitamin
C should be the buffered alkaline form (mineral ascorbates)
rather than the acidic form (ascorbic acid) and should
be combined with bioflavonoids which prolong vitamin
C's action in the blood circulation. The powdered
form of vitamin C is recommended to achieve optimal
dosing. A tablespoon of vitamin C powder (about 10,000
mgs) can be added to juice. Good products are Twinlab's
Super Ascorbate C powder and Alacer's powdered vitamin
Melatonin, a sleep-inducing hormone available at most
health food stores, has been shown to help prevent
lethal toxins from anthrax exposure. [Cell Biology
Toxicology, Volume 16, 2000] It could be taken at
bedtime in doses ranging from 5-20 mg. Melatonin boosts
glutathione levels during sleep.
Of additional interest, one of the methods by which
mustard gas works is its ability to bring about cell
death by depleting cell levels of glutathione (Medical
Journal, April 9, 2001] So glutathione is also an
antidote for mustard gas poisoning.
all bacteria, viruses and fungi depend upon iron as
a growth factor. [Iron & Your Health, T.F. Emery,
CRC Press, 1991] Iron-chelating (removing) drugs and
antibiotics (Adriamycin, Vancomycin, others) are effective
against pathogens. The plague (Yersinia pestis), botulism,
smallpox and anthrax could all be potentially treated
with non-prescription metal-binding chelators. For
example, iron removal retards the growth of the plague.
[Medical Hypotheses. January 1980] The biological
activity of the botulisum toxin depends upon iron,
and metal chelators may be beneficial. Infection Immunology,
October 1989, Toxicon, July, 1997]. Phytic acid IP6),
derived as an extract from rice bran, is the most
potent natural iron chelator and has strong antibiotic
and antioxidant action [Free Radical Biology Medicine,
Volume 8, 1990; Journal Biological Chemistry, August
25, 1987] IP6 has been found to have similar iron-chelating
properties as desferrioxamine, a drug commonly used
to kill germs, tumor cells or to remove undesirable
minerals from the body. [Biochemistry Journal, September
15, 1993] IP6 rice bran extract (2000-4000 mg) should
be taken in between meals with filtered or bottled
water only (no juice).
antibacterial, antiseptic action of plant oils has
been described in recent medical literature and may
be helpful in fighting biological toxins. [Journal
Applied Microbiology, Volume 88, 2000] A potent natural
antibiotic, more powerful than many prescription antibiotics,
is oil of oregano. One study showed that oregano completely
inhibited the growth of 25 germs such as Staphylococcus
aureas, Echierichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica
and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [Journal Food Protection,
July 2001] Oregano has been shown to be effective
in eradicating intestinal parasites in humans. [Phytotherapy
Research, May 2000] Wild oregano, which is quite different
than the variety on most kitchen spice racks, has
over 50 antibacterial compounds. Just one part wild
oregano oil in 4000 dilution sterilizes contaminated
water. [London Times, May 8, 2001] Oregano powder
from whole leaf oregano is available as OregamaxTM
capsules (North American Herb & Spice Co.). A
spectacular development in natural antibiotic therapy
is the manufacture of oregano powder from 100% pure
oregano oil producing one of the most potent antibiotics
known. It has recently become available under the
trade name OregacinTM (North Arican Herb & Spice
Co.). It costs about $1 per pill, but this is a far
cry from the $16 per pill for Vancomycin, known as
most potent prescription antibiotic. Nature also provides
nerve gas antitoxins.
gas interrupts the normal transmission of nerve impulses
by altering levels of acetycholinesterase, the enzyme
that degrades the nerve transmitter acetycholine,
Huperzine A, a dirivative of Chinese club moss, has
been suggested as a pre-treatment against nerve gases.
[Annals Pharmacology France, January 2000] The Walter
Reed Army Institute of Research conducted studies
which revealed that Huperzine A protects against nerve
gas poisoning in a superior manner to physostigmine,
a long-standing anti-nerve toxin, drug. [Defense Technical
Information Center Review, Volume 2, December 1996]
Huperzine A is available as a food supplement at most
health food stores. Suggested dosage is 150 meg per
day. Pretreatment is advised prior to nerve gas exposure.
The threat of biological warfare is real and the concern
over preparedness of the civilian population and medical
professionals is growing. There is virtually no practical
way that vaccines, antibiotics or other treatment
can be delivered to a frightened populace in a timely
manner during a crisis. The current strategy of having
an unprotected citizenry travel to physicians' offices
or hospitals to receive prophylactic care or treatment
is unfeasible. The public must be armed with preventative
or therapeutic agents in their vehicles, homes and
Natural antibiotics and antitoxins are well documented
in the medical literature, but overlooked by health
authorities. These antidotes are readily available
for the public to acquire and place in an emergency
biological response kit. (Last portion of article
is by Bill Sardi.)
Copyright Bill Sardi Knowledge of
Health, Inc. 457 West Alien Avenue #117 San Dimas,
recent threats of bioterrorism have caused researchers
to focus more attention on ways to treat a wide variety
of various bacteria and viral infections.
risk of anthrax contamination is very small and the
chances of the problem becoming widespread
are even smaller. You have a greater risk of being
hit by lightning than you do of contracting anthrax.
Precautionary measures such as taking antibiotics
will only weaken your immune system and make you more
vulnerable to common problems that you will likely
encounter. There are some simple precautions to take.
Anthrax spores can be killed on any surface with common
disinfectant sprays or wipes like Clorox or Lysol.
This includes mailboxes, mail, etc. Using disposable
gloves to handle any potentially contaminated items
is also a good idea. Actual inhalation exposure to
anthrax spores will require antibiotic treatment.
first line of defense in any kind of infection
or Biological Warfare is to be clean internally!
The best insurance against any flu epidemics,
plagues or killing diseases is to have your body
in as healthy a condition as possible. Disease
germs are merely scavengers and can live only
on toxins, decaying mater (from heavy meat
eating), mucous (from over use of dairy
products), an over acid body (sugar, soda
pop, junk food), or one who is generally sick
and Virus cannot damage healthy cell structure!
key to health is to keep you body clean, by
avoiding foods with no food value, and getting
back to the basics of eating whole foods. There
will be, within a group, some who contract a disease
and some who will not. This indicates that some
have cleaner bodies, thus a stronger immune system,
will find the most economical and effective solutions
will be the use of natural germ-killing and antibiotic
substances. The following substances have a long history
of safe use, they're readily available, and, more
importantly, pathogens do not become resistant to
that can be used to protect yourself and loved ones
from various strains of baceria, viruses, and other
extract found in Sambucol and Elderberry Advantage
is jut one example.(if you have
used either of these products to treat colds, flu,
or other respiratory problems, I'm sure you
realize they're worth in gold.
Others are:Propolis, Citricidal, Hydrogen peroxide
,Colloidal Silver, Anti-Plague, Potassium iodide,
food grade hydrogen peroxide, chlorine bleach, citricidal,
PAV, propolis, xylitol, eucalyptus oil.
the best news is that you can use these substances
now. While the rest of the world is waiting for some
magic bullet, you have the tools and knowledge to
put spread biological problem were to occur in your
area, I would hate to think that your only solution
would be to wait for the local government or health
authorities to save the day.
up on these items and begin to understand their strengths
is just one organism that affects the body three
different ways, through your Skin, Respiratory
system and Intestinal tract.
saturate your system with lots of distilled
water, Garlic (3-4 cloves a day) Echinacea
and Anti-Plague (an extract that promotes an overall
healthy immune system, and excellent for any bacteria
problems). If a plague or some other epidemic hits
before you are in a healthy condition, it is good
to have the Anti-Plague formula as an aid for fast
cleansing. It contains garlic
herb, and uva
Along with the above and a major diet change,
especially no dairy products, plus herbs for the
lungs and respiratory tract function (comfrey
herb), or available in the formula, Resp-Free.
Use an herbal colon cleanser (Fen LB) for lower
bowel function and to keep the bowels moving.
Use the same suggestions as above.
2001 Nature's Medicine Chest | Copyright©
1990 Timpanogos Publishers
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