Survival - Excerpts Taken from "The Sense of Survival" by J. Allan South

Much talk is heard of survival these days: economic survival, emotional survival, physical survival. Many are predicting gruesome occurrences for humanity and are making their preparations for nuclear holocaust, complete economic collapse, or giant earthquakes and the chaos and disorder they would cause.
It doesn't have to be nuclear war (although it certainly enters our minds as a possibility); it could be a strike, loss of work, tornado, earthquake, tidal wave, civil disorder, winter storm, fire, or some other disaster. It doesn't have to engulf the country or the world; it may only affect a region, state, or county.

Everyone may not need emergency advice; but there always have been disasters, and until the earth somehow inclines to a more ordered state there undoubtedly will continue to be. Prophets, politicians, scientists, and coffee-break rhetoricians all predict difficulties. We hear about earthquakes (try, for example, Revelations 6:12; Isaiah 13:10-13), wars, famine, pestilence, etc. See your local newspaper for the latest of these happenings. When these cataclysmic descriptions do not involve one's own immediate situation, they seem far away. When they do, they are all too real!

Let us proceed, then, with the basic assumption that times will change, at least for some. And certain basic skills could be useful-if not in fact necessary-for comfort or perhaps even survival. And when a crisis occurs, the time for preparation will be past.

"The SENSE of SURVIVAL" J Allan South

 BASIC FIRST AID TIPS


Bites
- plaintain poultice, a tea of plantain, yarrow or horsetail 3- 4 cups a day.
Burns - remove clothing, if not stuck, flush in cold water or apply cold cloths. Apply burn ointment.
Choking - Heimlich maneuver.
Cuts, bruises - apply pressure if bleeding and cayenne pwd,
Drowning - CPR, elevate feet, keep warm.
Eye, object out - let eye tear, don't rub, place a flax seed in eye till object adhears.
Fainting - lay on back, elevate feet or bend over with head at knee level. CPR if necessary.
Fractures - don't move if back/neck injury, or unconscious. Treat for shock/bleeding.
Immobilize injury before moving.
Frostbite - don't rub, warm slowly in tepid water, warm drinks, wrap in blankets.
Headache - a tea of Yarrow, Nettle, Catnip or Mullein
Hypothermia - 1 dropperful Cayenne tincture under tongue
Nosebleed - apply finger pressure on upper lip, just below nose.
Shock - 1 dropperful cayenne tincture. Lay on back, feet elevated.



$5.00 EMERGENCY KIT
Make it NOW
and put it in the car!
72 Hour kit Checklist
from - Emergency Essentials
Family Disaster Plan Forms: Courtesy of Prep-C.org

Life has become so specialized for most of us that many of the materials and methods we would need in possible survival situations have no part or function in our normal lives. Since it's always easier to spend money on things that will be used often than on things that may never be needed, some of these items could be incorporated into hobby or recreation activities or other tactical purposes.
Keeping this dual-purpose concept in mind may modify some purchases. The needs addressed here are: HEAT (including fuel and cooking); LIGHT; SOFTWARE (clothing, bedding. Etc.) HARDWARE (tools, materials), and MISCELLANEOUS.

  HEAT / COOKING


In almost any disaster those services providing heat and light are among the first to be interrupted. Life can become distressing without light and very uncomfortable and even dangerous without heat. Plans should therefore be made for alternative methods of heating and cooking. Stoves, fires, cooking in the rough, fuels, are subjects of interest.

Stoves
Many kinds of stoves can be thought of as emergency gear. Wood and coal stoves, propane stoves, small camping stoves, kerosene heaters, and other miscellaneous units all have potential usefulness.

Wood and Coal Stoves
The efficient metal stoves that became popular several years ago are excellent auxiliary and emergency heating and cooking devices. They are made to utilize coal, wood, pellets and combinations of these fuels. The really good stoves are expensive ($400-$3,500). Small cast-iron or steel stoves of acceptable quality and low prices are now hard to find, although they can be found in want ads occasionally. A stove can even be made from a 55 gallon oil-drum (kits $80), but EPA regulations
now largely preclude using all but the most efficient stoves.

There are also some small, fold-up, light-gauge, portable metal stoves, made to burn wood that are very effective for short-term heating and cooking. Among them are the Pyromid, the Raemco and the Sims. These units weigh around twenty-five to fifty pounds and fold up to a few inches thick by less than two feet square. They have accessories such as ovens and various venting (chimney) options, and most come with carrying cases. Some surplus outlets carry military tent stove that has a cast iron grate; they sell for a little over a hundred dollars and make a good back up heater.
Anyone interested in buying a wood/coal stove should look around and see what is available, and this look has to include a Lehmans catalog. Lehmans sells to the Amish and looking through this catalog helps in understanding the possibilities. A Fireplace can also serve for heating and cooking. Cooking with a fireplace requires a "hanger" or some type of grate to hold pans.

Small Camping Stoves
White gas camping stoves and good backpacking stoves are very effective cooking units. Many people worldwide cook on small white gas stoves resembling the camping stoves. Fuel is relatively expensive, however, and although most types do contain stabilizers and may be stored safely for a few years, it is generally not recommended for extended long-term storage.
The surging interest in camping and backpacking over the past few years has promoted the development of a flock of wonderful, light weight, efficient stoves. Many will operate on almost any standard liquid fuel. MSR, Coleman, Sigg and others make some great products.

Prices range from less than fifty dollars to over a hundred. If cared for in a reasonable manner they will last for many years. The stoves using canned butane fuel are the most convenient and easy to use. However, for bottom-line long-term preparedness it may be better to buy one that will operate on multiple liquid fuels, including kerosene. The great thing about these little stoves is that they are so light and compact and yet put out the heat of a large one. For simplicity I recommend any Coleman 1 piece stove like the one above. (No parts to attach or lose.) The MSR model XGK weighs about a pound; will run on kerosene, diesel, white gas, gasoline, and other similar fuels; and it will boil water in three minutes.

Recommendations:

For simplicity and no-hassle use the Coleman Peak1 or exponent. (anything dual fuel)

Cooking in The Rough
Cooking and baking may need to be done on a stove or over an open fire. A covered dutch oven or other heat-conductive, covered pot can be used as an oven by placing it on top of the stove. Flour sprinkled on the bottom of an oven will slowly brown at 350 degrees to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Bread can be baked in such an oven or in an integral oven on a stove if necessary, by placing the loaf directly on the bottom without bread pans. A sprinkle of coarse flour or cornmeal underneath the loaf will prevent sticking. In some parts of the world people still bake in square five gallon cans that have an opening in the side and a grate fitted to the inside. The device is set on a stove or near a fire.


A cast iron dutch oven can be placed on the glowing embers of a fire and some other hot coals placed on top of it to do the cooking, or the oven can be simply placed in the hot fire bed if there is sufficient grease or water in the container. If you are baking some type of bread in a dutch oven you need to do some cooking from the bottom, but it should be done mostly from the top. This is done by removing the oven from the coals in the fire bed after some cooking time and then setting it on the ground and placing hot coals on the lid of the oven. The Volcano stove is a popular cooking device using charcoal briquettes.
Cooking and heating with an open fire can be a "finger-warming" experience for the unprepared. Here again, a small fire is usually as effective as a large one. The hot coals from a fire are usually easiest to use for cooking. Generally, the flames do well for boiling and baking, and coals are good for frying and broiling. Cast iron is king when it comes to cooking on a fire, but other types of cookware are also usable and considerably lighter.


If no cookware is available, cooking can still be done. A green willow or branch (be sure to use a nontoxic wood—some woods such as oleander are very poisonous) can serve as a roasting stick similar to what would be used to roast a hot dog. Roots, meat, breads, and much else, can be cooked on a stick. An appropriately-shaped rock can also be placed near the fire and used for a cooking surface. (Warning: Never place wet rocks, such as one from a stream bed or from wet ground, in or near a fire. They can violently break apart or explode.) Also, water may be made to boil by adding very hot stones from a fire to the cooking container. Add food and cover the container until the food is done. Any pot of food brought to a boil may be surrounded with insulative material such as crumpled newspapers and kept sufficiently hot to do a lot of cooking after the heat is removed.


Food may be steamed under a fire by lining a shallow pit with leaves, grass or other green vegetation, placing food in the vegetation-lined pit, covering it with more leaves, covering that with one-fourth to one-half inch of dirt or sand, and then building the fire directly on top. Pull the fire away and retrieve the food when it is done. This process usually takes at least an hour— depending on what is being cooked, the size of the fire, and so on. Some foods can be cooked by simply wrapping them with leaves and placing them in the coals of the fire. Vegetables and some other food items may be coated with mud or clay and cooked in the coals or the flames.

Lighting Up
Making fires can become rather difficult without matches. It is essential to store a good supply of matches in a solid, waterproof, preferably metal container in at least two locations around the house. Matches can be waterproofed at home by dipping them in melted paraffin. Lighters may, of course, be substituted for at least some of the matches. The disposable butane lighters are quite inexpensive but do not have an indefinite storage life. When building an outdoor fire the most important thing to do to preserve matches is to prepare the fire bed adequately before lighting the match. Gather a copious supply of fine, dry, combustible material as well as larger-size material. Fine branches, shredded bark (light bark such as sagebrush or cedar are very good for this), dry moss, dry shredded grass, deserted birds' nests, and so forth will help get things going.


Some methods of lighting up without matches are flint and steel, steel wool and batteries, and a bow drill. With these methods, as with matches, preparation of the fire bed is essential to success. It may seem a bit harsh to say that the flint and steel and bow-drill routines are not for the novice, but experience has shown it to be true. It is not easy to make fires by these methods unless you have made it a matter of substantial practice.


Flint and steel can produce sparks, but making a fire from the sparks is difficult and when it is cold and damp, it borders on the "not-likely" category. To produce the spark a piece of "flint" (agate, quartz, etc.) is struck with the back of a solid hunting knife, the back of a closed blade of a pocket knife, or other piece of steel. It takes practice to make good sparks. Catch the spark in a well-prepared tinder bundle of the most flammable materials you can find, close the material around the spark, hold it up and gently blow it to a flame.

 LIGHT


The absence of light can do strange things to people. An emergency source of light is essential. Flashlights, candles, lamps and lanterns, light sticks and electrical generators are all reasonably good auxiliary sources of light

Flashlights:
Most households own at least one flashlight. (The problem is that when it's not lost, the batteries are usually dead or dying). It is a good idea to have a flashlight in every vehicle and also one in a bed stand or under your bed for night time emergencies. Alkaline batteries are more expensive than carbon-zinc, but their shelf-life is longer and they last about five times as long in use. Keep the poles of stored batteries covered with nonconductive material to prevent discharge, and store them in the refrigerator or freezer for added shelf-life. Good batteries and a low-watt globe can allow a flashlight to give ten hours or more of continuous light. Krypton Star bulbs are among the brightest, longest living, and best on the market.


A solar charger and rechargeable batteries are a great idea.
Lights and lanterns employing the larger six-volt batteries last much longer than ordinary flashlights The fluorescent lanterns are also long lasting and give good light. Flashlights attached to headbands are wonderful for hands-free operation. Some lights are powered by a squeezable generator or "dynamo;" they are labor-intensive but nice. Another option is the Forever Light that can be stored for many years and then activated by the addition of water for a few hours of continuous light. There are also some new offerings that have a built in solar charger that seem to work well.

Recommendations:
For home & car the Maglite® 3 or 4 D cell
For camping & light weight + extra bright the Pelican MightyLight® or PeliLight®

Candles:
Candles are easy to use and handy. For safety, a good holder should be part of the gear.' old-fashioned kind like Scrooge used work nicely. A three-fourth inch diameter candle will burn about one-half hour or a little longer per inch of length. An increase in diameter to seven-eight or one inch should give you double the burn time or more. A two inch square candle should burn several hours (five to seven) per inch.
Candles can be made from animal tallow, paraffin, wax, or combinations of them. Beef tallo is especially good. They may be molded in any convenient container: milk cartons, cans, j cups, toilet paper rolls, other cardboard or plastic containers, or anything else that seems suitable.
Wicks should be of cotton string. If you were in a pinch, you could use some dried plant stems. Pithy ones such as the center of mature cattail stems work fairly well.


The quality of wick material can be improved by soaking it (before making the candles) in turpentine 01 solution of one or two tablespoons of saltpeter (potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate) and on half pound of lime in a gallon of water for a few minutes, and then allowing it to dry.
Tallow should be rendered and cleaned before making candles. Cut the tallow into small pieces and heat it over low heat until it is all melted. (Odors may make it desirable to do this outdoors if possible, but it is not necessary.) Strain the melted fat through a cloth (save the piece of cooked meat to eat or feed to animals) and then put it back into the cleaned pot or kettle with some water. Boil it for a few minutes, then cool it and remove the clean tallow from the top Allow it to dry and then make it into candles by melting it over low heat or in a double boiler and either molding it in containers or dipping.


Dipping candles is done by dipping the wicks into the melted fat and allowing them to cool. When the initial dips cool enough but are not yet hard, roll them between your hands or two boards to develop intimate contact between the wick and tallow. Dip them into the hot tallow again and allow them to cool. (This works very well during cold weather when they can be cooled quickly.) Dip them again and let them cool; and repeat the process until the candle is the desired size. Several can be dipped at one time by tying the wicks to a wire or stick or nailing them to the edge of a board about two or three inches apart for as many as can be dipped into your pot. Commercial 100-hour or 200-hour candles are available that have a liquid fuel in a can with a wick. They work very well.

Recommendations:
100 hour liquid candles burn nice but have the potential to spill or leak.
Try any emergency type candle in a tin container with a lid.


Lamps and Lanterns
Kerosene lamps of varying descriptions were very widely used for many years. They are fairly easy to use and quite efficient. According to my own calculations, ten gallons of kerosene would give a few hours of light per day for a whole year. In his book Family Storage Plan (Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1966), Bob Zabriskie estimates that one quart of kerosene will burn forty-five hours in a lamp with a one inch wick. At this rate, a ten gallon supply would burn 1800 hours, or 5 hours per day for 360 days. A supply of spare wicks would also be necessary. Lamps need not be fancy, but it is a good idea to make sure they are not too cheaply built. Some will not turn the wick up and down very well, and the mechanism for doing so is easily broken. Hurricane lamps, railroad lamps, plain lamps, fancy lamps, brass lamps, steel lamps, and glass lamps all give about the same light. The kerosene lamps with a mantle, such as those made by Aladdin, produce a very bright light. However, the mantles break occasionally (when the kids knock the lamps onto the floor), and this makes the process of keeping and using them a bit more complex and expensive. But for a bright light they are the top of the line and very recommendable.


The black char that forms on the top of the wick should be gently pinched off before lighting a kerosene lamp, and the wick may occasionally need to be trimmed with scissors. The chimney should be kept clean inside and out. It can be wiped or washed clean. If it is washed, make sure it is completely dry before being used. One drop of water on it will probably cause it to crack when the lamp is lit. It is a good idea to keep a fire extinguisher or a container of sand or soda handy to extinguish a fire in case the kerosene lamp is broken and a fire starts.

White gas and propane lanterns give excellent light but consume more fuel than wick-type kerosene lamps. A single-mantle gas lantern will give approximately eight to nine hours of light per pint of fuel. A two-mantle lantern gives a little bit more light (about one-fourth to one-fifth more) but uses about one and one-half times as much fuel and is more expensive to buy and maintain. In my opinion the single-mantle is the better choice. A propane lantern will use approximately two-thirds the number of ounces of fuel as a white gas lantern for similar results. Some small backpacking stoves can double as lanterns with the extra lamp attachments.

   HARDWARE


The ultimate hardware kit would, of course, enable complete self-sufficiency. This may not be possible for everyone, but some hardware items should be part of every able-bodied person. In simplest form, an emergency equipment kit should contain a saw, pliers, ax, hammer, nails, adjustable wrench, screwdrivers, mill file, hacksaw, sharpening stone, knife or knives (at least a sturdy pocketknife), rope or cord, visquene, shovel, pick and a pot and griddle suitable for outdoor cooking. Other gardening tools, hand tools, materials are also desirable

A bow saw is probably the most effective and the least expensive for cutting firewood.
A carpenter's handsaw is also a useful tool and could be very helpful in rebuilding after a disaster. Suitable handsaws can be purchased for ten to twenty dollars each.

Pliers are very useful tools. A pair of plain straight pliers will bend metal, pick a pot out of a fire, cut wire, bend wire, loosen fasteners, and perform many other necessary functions. Poor quality pliers may break in a hard "pinch;" go for quality—not necessarily price.
An ax is useful for trimming and fitting timbers, splitting firewood, chopping firewood, driving stakes (single-bit ax), and so on. The rounded edge of the ax as it comes from the factory is okay for splitting wood, but it is poor for chopping. It may be reshaped with a slow-turning grinder or a file—a fast-turning grinder can overheat the metal and change the temper or hardening.


Be cautious with an ax; many have been injured in a moment of haste. Clear obstructions above and around the target and on the ground before chopping. When the ax handle loosens from the head, as happens to all axes in normal use, small wedges are usually driven into the end of the handle to tighten it or the top few inches of the handle (including the head) may be soaked in oil to cause the wood to swell.

A good solid hammer and a supply of nails are tools of great use. By gaming permission to pick up dropped nails around a construction site, a variety can normally be gleaned in a little time; or a variety of small (such as dry wall nails), medium (8d) and medium-large (16d) nails could be purchased.
An adjustable wrench, and several small and large straight-blade and Phillips' screwdrivers are minimal tools for taking care of many fastening and unfastening chores that are bound to occur and for turning off utilities. Socket sets, end wrenches, and locking pliers such as Vise Grips are also useful.


Mill files eight inches long or longer are good for shaping metal objects, including hoes, shovels, and axes. Store at least two or three. A sharpening stone with coarse and fine sides is necessary to shape and keep a good edge on knives and other tools. A hacksaw is used for cutting metal, and metal shears are used for cutting light-gauge sheet metal.

Knives are very useful, and a pocketknife and a rigid or lock-blade knife are "must have" survival tools for skinning and cleaning game, gathering plant food and fiber, and ten thousand or so other miscellaneous uses. Some think of knives in terms of self-defense, but for most of humanity the probability of using a knife as a self-defense weapon is probably not very great. Yet, a knife is an indispensable tool for survival. They do not have to be fancy in shape or anything else—just good steel and construction, and proper edge. The blade of the rigid or lock-blade knife should be at least four inches long. Features such as hollow-handles storage compartments and serrated back edges for sawing may or may not be desirable. Plain, good quality custom-made knives start at around $100.

Rope and string are useful for lashing, clothesline, tethering animals, and many other purposes. Strong, inexpensive nylon string and a little rope should handle most needs. If you live in a rural area, it should be easy to pick up a few pieces of used baling twine for nothing but the effort. Most farmers are glad to get rid of it.

Wire is one of those forgotten entities that can do wonders in a makeshift situation. Remember the old saying, "We keep most things going with spit and balin' wire." Baling wire or a small roll of form wire (used with concrete forms) is very inexpensive. Pliers are a must for working with wire.

Plastic sheeting can keep you and other things dry, make a solar still, help keep a child's bed dry, or serve any one of many other needs. Rolls of plastic are available at hardware stores and other outlets. An insulation contractor or supplier may be able to save you some money on a whole roll. A four-mil thickness is common and a good all-around weight.

A shovel is an absolutely essential survival tool for every able-bodied person, and more than one would be good for barter or prolonged use. A shovel can help in constructing ditches, wells, reservoirs, shelters, and latrines; cleaning house (when it gets to that point); harvesting crops; and much else.
Absolutely do not buy a cheap shovel if you plan to do much work with it.

A pick and/or a mattock and digging bar are also useful for digging in hard ground. (And most of it is!) They are almost tools of necessity for digging. If your nuclear war survival plans include the possibility of building an expedient shelter, or if you can foresee any other substantial digging project, then acquire at least a pick. Hard or rocky ground is almost impenetrable without one. A mattock has a broad face which can also speed up the digging chores.

A cooking pot and griddle suitable for cooking under adverse conditions are necessities.
Cast iron is unequaled for outdoor cooking. Household wares may be adaptable for this under
necessity, but they may never be the same again after being used over an open fire. Other
important kitchen hardware might include a can opener, kitchen spoons, pancake turner,
dishpan, bowls, and a bucket or two.

Other gardening tools that could be considered are a hoe, a rake, and a mattock or grubbing hoe. A grubbing hoe is, to me, one of the most useful hand gardening tools available. A large-wheel hand cultivator is also a useful gardening item.

Other hand tools useful for construction are a plane (a jack plane or a block plane are good for all-around use in planing wood articles), a chisel (for making holes, cutting, and shaping), a miter box (for cutting true angles), a level, a carpenter's square and a tri-square (for cutting true angles, rafters, and stairways), a brace and bits and/or a hand drill (for boring in wood), a chalk line, a measuring tape, and a carpenter's pencil and chalk or crayon. Some materials that might be added to the list where they are practical to store and might be used could include a sheet or two of plywood, chicken wire (for animal cages), caulking, screws and bolts, and lumber.

 SOFTWARE

Survival "software" includes clothing, keeping warm (including discussions on heat loss, insulation, layering, and an alternative cold-weather clothing system), bedding, and duffle. Temporary shelter (including tents) is discussed in Chapter 12, "Shelters."

Clothing
As a practical emergency preparation that requires no long-term extra expenditure, it is prudent to have at least one or two extra sets of sturdy clothing on hand. Where children are involved, it may not be as easy; but, speaking from experience, it is easily possible to buy many items that anticipate needs as long as a year in advance. This is especially true of basic clothing.
Sewing is a practical skill to acquire and depend on for emergency clothing needs. Heavyweight denim, flannel, and other yardage can be bought and tucked away with needles and thread for future use. Patterns can be purchased or worn-out clothing can be used for patterns. Don't forget buttons, snaps, zippers, patches, scissors and other sewing aids. Some companies make treadle attachments for converting an electric sewing machine to manual use in case of loss of electrical power.
Special precautions are in order to protect against cold and wet. If ordinary conditions do not require you to cope with weather extremes, it may not be fresh on the mind; but with a little exposure to harsh weather, it does not take long to realize how uncomfortable life could be.


A poncho or raincoat and some waterproof foot covering will help reduce exposure in wet weather. A good lightweight nylon poncho is more expensive but it may be a bargain in the long run. The very cheap disposable, see-through ponchos that fold up into a wallet-size package are made of a more flexible material and are actually not bad for one or a few uses. At very least, one of these or a good-sized piece of polyethylene sheeting is advisable for the purpose. Rubber boots or galoshes are effective for keeping feet dry.


Good sturdy footwear is practical, if not necessary, equipment for nearly every survival situation. Survival against the elements means work—largely outdoor work—and that kind of work is hard on shoes. The rubber-bottomed boots with felt inserts are great for keeping the feet warm in cold weather, but those that are poorly made are difficult to walk in.

Many leather boots are temporarily water-repellent, but with use they lose their repellency. However, some boots are available with Goretex liners which do hold out the water. A good leather dressing appropriate to the type of leather in the boots will do as much to preserve and waterproof the leather as about anything, and a supply of it should certainly be part of a storage program. Shoe polish works very well if the leather is made to receive it. Wax or silicone works well on most leather shoes and boots. Other dressings are available for the others.

A couple of pairs of good heavy wool or good synthetic socks are a must for rough going. They give protection, comfort, good wear, and warmth. For those not accustomed to heavy going, it may be good to know that changing socks every day is good practice. Rinse the dirty pair out and dry them while wearing another pair. This helps prevent foot disease and helps keep feet warm during cold weather. Even if it is not possible to wash the pair not being worn, just letting them "dry out" for a day helps.


In cold weather or when you must do a great deal of walking or work on foot, wearing a thin pair of socks under a thicker pair can help both to keep the feet warm and to prevent blisters. The inner socks made of polypropylene, silk or other synthetic material can help keep feet warm by conducting moisture away from the surface of the feet.

Recommendations:
Heat boots up and melt beeswax into the seams and stitchings of boots to help repel water.
When buying boots find the most light weight boot with the most durable leather & sole.

Keeping Warm
If you are stuck somewhere without heat, cover all of your body you can; arms, head, neck and so on.
Even though you may feel warm you still may be losing body heat from exposed areas.
Don't wait until you feel cold. Stay dry; moisture is one of the greatest deterrent to keeping warm. Expedient materials such as newspaper and foam from chair cushions can be used very effectively. I have heard some amazing stories of transients and other indigent people keeping alive in extreme conditions using newspaper for covering and insulation. When it is very cold, it is important not to get damp with sweat. Do not work hard enough to work up a sweat in these conditions—especially in an emergency situation where a warm shower or even a warm fire may not be close by.

Insulations
Down is a premier insulation for outdoor cold-weather clothing. It is durable to washing, it has the best warmth for weight performance, and garments made with it for insulation drape well on the body—they look good and hug the body. Down is also usually the most expensive insulation material. If an insulated garment is not expensive, it is probably filled with feathers or something else; but it is probably not down-filled. Piles and fleeces made of polyester, nylon, and acrylic are all good insulators in medium-weight garments. Wool is also very good.


Polyester insulations are the closest thing (feature for feature) to down that has been made by man. They are even superior to down in some respects. Some of the names are Polarguard 3 D, Lite Loft, Micro Loft, Primaloft, Hollofil 808, Hollofil II, and Quallofil. Variations in size, shape and treatment of the fibers determine the features. Hollofil 808 is a short (about two and one-half inch long) hollow fiber. (The hollow fibers provide good insulation and less weight.) Hollofil II is similar to Hollofil 808, but it has a silicon-based coating that makes it more compressible, more resilient, and—of course—more expensive. Quallofil is similar to the Hollofils but was more recently developed and has more holes running through the center. It is more thermally efficient, compressible, and resilient. Polarguard 3 D is the newest of the Polarguard series and has captured a major following in the sleeping bag market. Polarguard is a continuous filament. Lamilite (used in Wiggy's bags), also a continuous filament, is very effective. Lite Loft is bonded and is lofty and warm for weight.


There are also two products which are more dense and give greater insulation for a given thickness than those mentioned above; these are Thinsulate from 3M and Thermolite from DuPont. They are made from very fine fibers and provide good insulation without high bulk. If there is a weakness associated with these two insulations, it is that they may be slightly heavier for a given warmth and may not conform to the body as well as the lighter insulations. They are very useful where bulk is a concern, however, and are widely used. Many cold-weather gloves are made using these for insulation.
All these synthetic insulations retain very little moisture. If a garment or sleeping bag becomes wet, just shake or wring most of the moisture out of it and most of the insulative quality will be regained.

Layering
Cold weather clothing should be worn in layers that can be added or removed to be able to stay at just the right temperature.
An outer garment to protect from wind and water is an essential element in keeping Old Man Winter out. This outer layer is sometimes a separate garment and sometimes just an appropriate facing on the insulated piece of clothing. Materials such as Gore-Tex are popular for this purpose. They are designed to allow water in vapor form to pass out through the fabric while at the same time not allowing liquid water to pass in through it. These materials are more expensive than most other fabric but are very effective. Better grades are more effective and cost more.


Poplin (cotton, cotton-nylon, and cotton-polyester) is also very durable and very popular for the outer shell, as is all-nylon. These fabrics are not waterproof, but can be made nearly so by weave and fiber size and by treating with Scotchguard or Drifab (from Amway), or some other similar material.
For keeping the wet out, nonbreathahle fabrics such as coated nylon are made into rainwear and are much less expensive than Gore-Tex and similar products, and in many uses they are just as serviceable and much less expensive. They do not allow vapor to go through the fabric, however, and allow becoming wet from the inside. Proper design and construction of an outer garment, allowing for opening and closing and other features, can lend much to its usability.


Wear what is appropriate for keeping warm under the outer garment. In extreme conditions a well-insulated coat might be worn inside the outer shell, with a pile jacket or wool sweater inside the coat and an appropriate shirt and underwear next to the skin.
The legs may not need as much insulation as the torso, but underwear, a heavy pant and an outer shell are still necessary in extremes. The hands also need a protective outer shell with a fairly dense insulation underneath. Wool or polyester insulation with a nylon or leather outer glove or mitt are good combinations.
In many cases layers are combined using modern technology to produce some very effective products. An example would be a Gore-Tex glove with a leather palm, insulated with Thinsulate and lined with a synthetic flannel.

Bedding
It is necessary to have adequate bedding to handle things in your climate area in case the furnace thermostat and the controls on your electric blanket are no longer able to do the job. If you are a camping enthusiast and have a good sleeping bag as part of your gear, that is great. But if you never camp and do not have an extra $100 to $200 each to buy good sleeping bags, then count on an extra two or three blankets per person for emergency purposes. Wool blankets are tough, warm, and very good for outdoor use. Synthetic blankets have many of the same qualities, are lighter, and retain very little moisture; and an inexpensive one can be purchased for as little as $5 at discount stores. Inexpensive plain wool blankets can be bought for around $15 to $30 new or from a surplus store for about $10 to $30, used or new. Down sleeping bags are great for their weight; but they are expensive and the down clumps together when it becomes wet, making it much less insulative. Qualofil, Polarguard, Lite Loft, and Lamilite (used in Wiggy's bags) are well-proven sleeping bag insulators.


When you are bedding down outdoors, a waterproof ground cloth is essential—a function that is served well by a good poncho—and a tent is desirable. (If you do all of your sleeping indoors you may not know how much moisture accumulates as dew—not to mention snow and rain.) A piece of plastic or waterproof tarp will also make a good ground cover. An insulative pad is very desirable as well. Pads range from about $7 or $8 for a small, thin one to around $75 for deluxe models. (See recommendations below)
Any of the pads are much better than nothing.


The plastic-aluminum foil laminate that has become known as "space blanket" or "emergency blanket" is very light and effective for holding body warmth. It reflects body heat back to the wearer. Put one of these around you or over your bedding in extreme conditions and they will help retain heat to an amazing extent. The drawback to using them over clothing is that they do not allow the body moisture to escape. As water vapor leaves the body (a normal, ongoing process), the vapor is trapped by the material, condenses to water, and dampens the clothing or bedding. Because of this, these devices should normally be used only when it is fairly cold or in the absence of something better. It may sound strange, but these emergency blankets would actually be more effective if they were worn next to or close to the skin to give a vapor barrier. This is also true of using one in a sleeping bag—put it close to your skin. If this escapes your logic, reread the above discussion on vapor barriers and also try it out for yourself.


Another similar product now on the market (Texolite) is a shiny, heat-reflective porous material which allows water vapor to pass through it. It is sewn into sleeping bags and reflects body heat back to the body but allows the water vapor to escape.
Expedient blankets can be woven from thatch and reeds. Even cuddling up in a pile of dry leaves or grass can keep you warm—but be sure to keep them dry.

Recommendations Sleeping Bags:
For car camping or sleep over type use, any inexpensive fiberfill bag will do.
For long term backpacking/survival a goose down bag like the one above because it will compress to a very small size and is lightweight.

Recommendations Sleeping Pads:
For years I have been using a simple combination of a Therm-A-Rest "Ridge Rest®" (closed cell foam pad) and "Camp Rest®" (self inflating air mattress). The key to staying warm is keeping your body off the ground.

Duffle
Keeping gear (especially a 14-day Emergency Kit) contained and portable is a necessary part of organizing it. For that reason, a few ideas are included on the subject. Backpacks are excellent containers to use for some kinds of basic equipment, if you have them. They come in a wide variety of features, quality, and sizes. Some features to look for are construction waterproof material.
If you are not a backpacker (or maybe even if you are), duffle bags are also very good containers. They are light, tough, inexpensive, and easily carried. The new military issue duffle bag and similar commercial models have conveniently arranged shoulder straps, which allow them to be carried like a pack. New bags can be purchased at sporting goods stores and from mail order suppliers, and new and used ones are available at most military surplus store. Waterproof bags are a little more expensive but may be worth the cost. In a pinch, if you had to leave home and pack things in a hurry, you can use the "Santa Claus* bundle and throw everything into the sleeping bag.

 

 SHELTERS

Tents
Tents may not seem a good investment as emergency gear for someone who would never otherwise use one, but if it would be otherwise used it could also serve as a temporary shelter in an emergency. And tents are an excellent choice for emergency shelter. Many sheepherders and others have spent time fairly comfortably during even extreme conditions in a good tent with a stove to huddle up to.
Two - or three-person tents are available at a great variety of prices. The design, weight of material, quality of construction, and name all dictate price. It is often possible, for example, to see two three-man tents of nearly identical design in a sporting goods store where one is half the price of the other. Retaining quality while reducing weight is what usually raises the price. Guarantees also cost a little extra.
If you are willing to make a few simple repairs down the road and are not going to be using he tent more than a few days a year, an inexpensive one may serve as well as an expensive one except in specialized applications. Quality costs, however.
A rain fly is a must in a small nylon tent unless some special design feature otherwise provides the needed protection, and my experience causes me to suspect the usefulness of many of the "special designs" except in top-of-the-line models. The nylon alone may hold out the wet for a time if left untouched; but if you touch the inside it will leak, and in a small tent it is next to impossible not to touch. Seam sealer seals the tent seams against moisture leakage.
Canvas is a durable and long lasting tent material. Treatment of the canvas helps improve performance and longevity. Canvas tents are generally stable in the wind and can make a rather acceptable home away from home. Some of the large lightweight tents are rather unstable in the wind.
In any case tents should be given due consideration as emergency shelter. In hard times a tarp or a piece of polyethylene sheeting can be fashioned into a tent or lean-to.

Recommendations:
For car camping or large families a tough canvas tent is a great option. Kirkhams
For backpacking or small families a 2-3 person 3 season tent is a good choice. Sierra Designs
For Price- A cheap 2-3 person dome tent is easy to set up and costs under $30 at most Wal Marts.

Other Shelters
It is a common saying among realtors that there are three factors to consider when building a shelter; location, location, and location! Even temporary shelters should be built observing these three important rules. A shelter is not just protection but should give a sense of security and comfort as well. Even though building a suitable shelter may take some long hours of work, it is probably worth the investment. Pick a dry area away from gullies or high ridges or peaks to reduce the dangers of flash floods, high winds, and lightning. Be observant of possibilities of flash floods or rock or snow slides. Locate near a usable water supply, firewood, and building materials for the shelter. Insulate yourself from the ground with bark, boughs, brush, wood, or other dry insulative materials.

Makeshift shelters may make good use of gear such as plastic or ponchos, and natural features such as banks, rocks, and vegetation: a simple lean-to built against a tree or some natural formation can get you by in a period of short-term need. Remember that breezes usually blow up canyons in the morning and down canyons in the evening. By moving up the side of a canyon even a few yards and/or taking advantage of natural barriers, the wind factor can be reduced considerably. Also, facing the entrance of a shelter in the northern hemisphere toward the winter sun (south to southwest), or away from the summer sun (north to northeast), or away from the wind can make it much easier to keep the interior at the desired temperature.

 

 MISCELLANEOUS

A number of miscellaneous items should be considered as good survival equipment. One of the most important is writing tools. Pens, pencils, and notebooks are good not only for recording important details but also for recording important thoughts and feelings, writing letters, and for recreation. It may be hard to think of writing as recreation, but under some circumstances it could bring a welcome relief from other duties and provide an outlet of expression by putting awkward moments to useful purpose. In addition, important papers and other valuables should be kept available and "found."
A supply of cleaning agents and toiletries are important. This should include laundry detergent, all-purpose or dish detergent, germicide, hand soap, rags, bleach, rubbing alcohol, razor and blades, toothpaste, and deodorant.


A sewing kit such as mentioned earlier in "Software" is something that could be easily overlooked.
Needles and thread are very inexpensive and easy to store. As mentioned earlier, some manufacturers make treadle attachments for sewing machines so that they can be made to function in the absence of electricity. A "Speedy Stitcher" for sewing leather and other tough jobs is also desirable.


As previously mentioned (14-day Emergency Kit), dust masks could be popular items in more than just a nuclear war scenario. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storms, and other natural disasters can also cause excessive dust in the air. Fairly good rubber masks with dust filters and valves can be purchased at safety appliance stores for as little as ten dollars. Better ones cost more. Paper or disposable masks are much less.
It has already been mentioned in the sections on gardening and preparing grains that a supply of seed and a hand-operated grinder could be valuable emergency storage items. Even more important is experience in using these and other survival measures. Why not start growing a garden now? Why not practice cooking with whole grains now? It can increase health, save money, and promote a feeling of independence.


  BIOLOGICAL PLAGUES & NUCLEAR DISASTERS


NUCLEAR FALLOUT

AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL PLAGUES
treated the Natural Way

THE THREAT OF NUCLEAR EXPOSION
The threat of nuclear explosion or nuclear power plant sabotage is as great as or greater than exposure to biological agents. With the number of nuclear power plants, prime military targets, and the prevailing wind patterns, there is probably no location in the U.S. that is totally protected from nuclear fallout resulting from a nuclear accident or explosion.

Steps to help protect yourself and your loved ones from a nuclear accident should now be at the top of your list.

The thyroid acts much like an iodine sponge. The absorption of radioactive iodine can be prevented by saturating the thyroid with safe forms of iodine prior to exposure to radioactive fallout. Taking iodine prior to exposure can limit the uptake of radioactive iodine to as little as one percent of the total iodine absorbed, and prevent the problems and cancer it causes.

Potassium Iodide: In all developed countries, except the U.S., the government stockpiles potassium iodide (KI) tablets and makes them readily available to its citizens. It would be to your benefit to keep an oral potassium iodide supplement on hand at all times. To be effective, the tablets need to be taken no sooner than 48 hours prior to fallout exposure and absolutely no later than 16 hours after exposure . Iodine should be taken several hours prior to exposure and every 24 hours thereafter for at least 15 days (or until one day after exposure, whichever is longer) A good source is from a company called KI45U, 212 oil Patch Lane, Gonzales, Texas 78625.

Doses:
Adults and children over 12............ 130 mg
Children 3-12 years old.....................65 mg
Children1 month to 3 years old...........32 mg
Children under a month old................16 mg

To Make your own Potassium Iodide Solution:
You will need one bottle of crystalline or granular potassium iodide (found at chemical supply
houses, which may be listed under chemicals in the yellow pages, photo supply stores,
or the high school or college science lab.

Fill a small glass bottle (2 oz.) about 60 percent full with the potassium iodide crystals. Then pour clean, room temperature water over the crystals until the bottle is 90 percent full. Close the bottle with a non-metallic screwtop and shake vigorously for several minutes. When allowed to sit for a short time, there would be undisolved crystals settling to the bottom of the bottle. This tells you the solution you made is totally saturated. With this saturated solution, the adult dosage would be four drops every 24 hours. A 3-12 yr. old child would take 2 drops every 24 hours.


A MOST INFORMATIVE REPORT ON
NATURAL ANTIDOTES TO BIOLOGICAL TOXINS
Garlic, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Glutathione, Wild Oregano Oil, and Huperzine A


Americans have grown so accustomed to relying upon prescription medications that they will probably have difficulty believing there are natural compounds as close as the kitchen cupboard that are potent antidotes against biological warfare. These natural antibiotics and antioxidants may give unvaccinated people who have been exposed to biological or chemical weapons enough time to secure professional care. They may even save lives. It is a fact that chaotic events will make it difficult to obtain appropriate treatment even if it were available. So we must learn more about natural antidotes. Furthermore, it is clear that antidotes to biological attacks need to be employed at home or the workplace in an expedient manner. The idea of the masses running to obtain medical care or vaccines at doctor's offices, clinics or hospitals needs to be abandoned if civilian defense against biological weapons is to become a reality.

NATURAL RESCUE REMEDIES
Since anthrax is the most feared toxin it will be addressed first. The Garlic information Center in Britain indicates that deadly anthrax is most susceptible to garlic. Garlic is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that even blocks toxin production by germs. [Journal Nutrition, March 2001] Before vaccines were developed against polio, garlic was used successfully as a prophylactic. In one test garlic was found to be a more potent antibiotic than penicillin, ampicillin, doxycycline, streptomycin and cephalexin, some of the very same antibiotic drugs used in the treatment of anthrax. Garlic was found to be effective against nine strains of E.coli, Staph and other bugs. [Fitoterapia, Volume 5, 1984] Freshly cut cloves of garlic or garlic powder may be beneficial. The antibiotic activity of one milligram of allicin, the active ingredient in garlic, equals 15 units of penicillin. [Koch and Lawson, Garlic: The Science and Therapeutic Application, 2nd edition, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1996] Garlic capsules that certify their allicin content are preferred and may provide 5-10 milligrams -of allicin, which is equivalent to 75-150 units of penicillin. The anthrax bacterium's toxicity emanates from its ability to kill macrophage cells which are part of the immune system.
Studies have shown that sulfur-bearing antioxidants (alpha lipoic acid, N-acetyl cysteine, taurine) and vitamin C, which elevate levels of glutathione, a natural antioxidant within the body, counters the toxicity produced by anthrax. [Molecular Medicine, November 1994; Immunopharmacology, January 2000; Applied Environmental Microbiology, May 1979] The above sulfur compounds can be obtained from health food stores and taken in doses ranging from -100-500 mg."Vitamin C should be the buffered alkaline form (mineral ascorbates) rather than the acidic form (ascorbic acid) and should be combined with bioflavonoids which prolong vitamin C's action in the blood circulation. The powdered form of vitamin C is recommended to achieve optimal dosing. A tablespoon of vitamin C powder (about 10,000 mgs) can be added to juice. Good products are Twinlab's Super Ascorbate C powder and Alacer's powdered vitamin C.
Melatonin, a sleep-inducing hormone available at most health food stores, has been shown to help prevent lethal toxins from anthrax exposure. [Cell Biology Toxicology, Volume 16, 2000] It could be taken at bedtime in doses ranging from 5-20 mg. Melatonin boosts glutathione levels during sleep.
Of additional interest, one of the methods by which mustard gas works is its ability to bring about cell death by depleting cell levels of glutathione (Medical Journal, April 9, 2001] So glutathione is also an antidote for mustard gas poisoning.

Virtually all bacteria, viruses and fungi depend upon iron as a growth factor. [Iron & Your Health, T.F. Emery, CRC Press, 1991] Iron-chelating (removing) drugs and antibiotics (Adriamycin, Vancomycin, others) are effective against pathogens. The plague (Yersinia pestis), botulism, smallpox and anthrax could all be potentially treated with non-prescription metal-binding chelators. For example, iron removal retards the growth of the plague. [Medical Hypotheses. January 1980] The biological activity of the botulisum toxin depends upon iron, and metal chelators may be beneficial. Infection Immunology, October 1989, Toxicon, July, 1997]. Phytic acid IP6), derived as an extract from rice bran, is the most potent natural iron chelator and has strong antibiotic and antioxidant action [Free Radical Biology Medicine, Volume 8, 1990; Journal Biological Chemistry, August 25, 1987] IP6 has been found to have similar iron-chelating properties as desferrioxamine, a drug commonly used to kill germs, tumor cells or to remove undesirable minerals from the body. [Biochemistry Journal, September 15, 1993] IP6 rice bran extract (2000-4000 mg) should be taken in between meals with filtered or bottled water only (no juice).

The antibacterial, antiseptic action of plant oils has been described in recent medical literature and may be helpful in fighting biological toxins. [Journal Applied Microbiology, Volume 88, 2000] A potent natural antibiotic, more powerful than many prescription antibiotics, is oil of oregano. One study showed that oregano completely inhibited the growth of 25 germs such as Staphylococcus aureas, Echierichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [Journal Food Protection, July 2001] Oregano has been shown to be effective in eradicating intestinal parasites in humans. [Phytotherapy Research, May 2000] Wild oregano, which is quite different than the variety on most kitchen spice racks, has over 50 antibacterial compounds. Just one part wild oregano oil in 4000 dilution sterilizes contaminated water. [London Times, May 8, 2001] Oregano powder from whole leaf oregano is available as OregamaxTM capsules (North American Herb & Spice Co.). A spectacular development in natural antibiotic therapy is the manufacture of oregano powder from 100% pure oregano oil producing one of the most potent antibiotics known. It has recently become available under the trade name OregacinTM (North Arican Herb & Spice Co.). It costs about $1 per pill, but this is a far cry from the $16 per pill for Vancomycin, known as most potent prescription antibiotic. Nature also provides nerve gas antitoxins.

Nerve gas interrupts the normal transmission of nerve impulses by altering levels of acetycholinesterase, the enzyme that degrades the nerve transmitter acetycholine, Huperzine A, a dirivative of Chinese club moss, has been suggested as a pre-treatment against nerve gases. [Annals Pharmacology France, January 2000] The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research conducted studies which revealed that Huperzine A protects against nerve gas poisoning in a superior manner to physostigmine, a long-standing anti-nerve toxin, drug. [Defense Technical Information Center Review, Volume 2, December 1996] Huperzine A is available as a food supplement at most health food stores. Suggested dosage is 150 meg per day. Pretreatment is advised prior to nerve gas exposure.

SUMMARY: The threat of biological warfare is real and the concern over preparedness of the civilian population and medical professionals is growing. There is virtually no practical way that vaccines, antibiotics or other treatment can be delivered to a frightened populace in a timely manner during a crisis. The current strategy of having an unprotected citizenry travel to physicians' offices or hospitals to receive prophylactic care or treatment is unfeasible. The public must be armed with preventative or therapeutic agents in their vehicles, homes and the workplace.

NOTE:
Natural antibiotics and antitoxins are well documented in the medical literature, but overlooked by health authorities. These antidotes are readily available for the public to acquire and place in an emergency biological response kit. (Last portion of article is by Bill Sardi.)
http://www.sdm2000.com/toxinreport.doc
Copyright Bill Sardi Knowledge of Health, Inc. 457 West Alien Avenue #117 San Dimas, California 91773

BIOTERRORISM
The recent threats of bioterrorism have caused researchers to focus more attention on ways to treat a wide variety of various bacteria and viral infections.

The risk of anthrax contamination is very small and the chances of the problem becoming widespread
are even smaller. You have a greater risk of being hit by lightning than you do of contracting anthrax. Precautionary measures such as taking antibiotics will only weaken your immune system and make you more vulnerable to common problems that you will likely encounter. There are some simple precautions to take. Anthrax spores can be killed on any surface with common disinfectant sprays or wipes like Clorox or Lysol. This includes mailboxes, mail, etc. Using disposable gloves to handle any potentially contaminated items is also a good idea. Actual inhalation exposure to anthrax spores will require antibiotic treatment.

The first line of defense in any kind of infection or Biological Warfare is to be clean internally!
The best insurance against any flu epidemics, plagues or killing diseases is to have your body in as healthy a condition as possible. Disease germs are merely scavengers and can live only on toxins, decaying mater (from heavy meat eating), mucous (from over use of dairy products), an over acid body (sugar, soda pop, junk food), or one who is generally sick internally.

Bacteria and Virus cannot damage healthy cell structure!

The key to health is to keep you body clean, by avoiding foods with no food value, and getting back to the basics of eating whole foods. There will be, within a group, some who contract a disease and some who will not. This indicates that some have cleaner bodies, thus a stronger immune system, than others.

You will find the most economical and effective solutions will be the use of natural germ-killing and antibiotic substances. The following substances have a long history of safe use, they're readily available, and, more importantly, pathogens do not become resistant to them.

Items that can be used to protect yourself and loved ones from various strains of baceria, viruses, and other pathogens;

Elderberry extract found in Sambucol and Elderberry Advantage is jut one example.(if you have
used either of these products to treat colds, flu, or other respiratory problems, I'm sure you
realize they're worth in gold.
Others are:Propolis, Citricidal, Hydrogen peroxide ,Colloidal Silver, Anti-Plague, Potassium iodide, food grade hydrogen peroxide, chlorine bleach, citricidal, PAV, propolis, xylitol, eucalyptus oil.

...and the best news is that you can use these substances now. While the rest of the world is waiting for some magic bullet, you have the tools and knowledge to put spread biological problem were to occur in your area, I would hate to think that your only solution would be to wait for the local government or health authorities to save the day.

Stock up on these items and begin to understand their strengths and limitations.

ANTHRAX

This is just one organism that affects the body three different ways, through your Skin, Respiratory system and Intestinal tract.
skin:
saturate your system with lots of distilled water, Garlic (3-4 cloves a day) Echinacea , Cayenne, and Anti-Plague (an extract that promotes an overall healthy immune system, and excellent for any bacteria problems). If a plague or some other epidemic hits before you are in a healthy condition, it is good to have the Anti-Plague formula as an aid for fast cleansing. It contains garlic juice, comfrey leaves, wormwood herb, lobelia herb, marshmallow root, oak bark, mullein leaves, skullcap herb, and uva ursi herb.

Respiratory:
Along with the above and a major diet change, especially no dairy products, plus herbs for the lungs and respiratory tract function (comfrey leaf, mullein leaf, chickweed herb, marshmallow root, lobelia herb), or available in the formula, Resp-Free.

Intestinal:
Use an herbal colon cleanser (Fen LB) for lower bowel function and to keep the bowels moving.
Use the same suggestions as above.


Copyright© 2001 Nature's Medicine Chest | Copyright© 1990 Timpanogos Publishers
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