Nature's Medicine Chest Plant Identification Series

100 Plants & Herbs on CD-ROM with over 500 living color photos and close-up's of master plants and herbs which have proven successful over the ages.
Learn the difference between look-alike. Medicinal, edible and poisonous plants.

  • The perfect companion to this CD!
  • A MUST if you are pursuing alternative healing.
  • SAVES you money in avoiding costly medical bills, by using plants that prevent illness, heal and save lives.
  • A GREAT aid for school assignments and exercises that require you to identify various plants and herbs.

1. alfalfa
2. aloe
3. amaranth
4. angelica
5. barberry
6. betony
7. black cohosh
8. black walnut
9. blessed thistle
10. blue cohosh
11. brigham tea
12. buckthorn, alder
13. burdock
14. camomile
15. catnip
16. cayenne
17. chaparral
18. chickweed
19. comfrey
20. crampbark
21. desert sage
22. echinacea
23. elder
24. elecampane
25. evening primrose
26. eyebright
27. fennel
28. fenugreek
29. flax
30. garlic
31. gentian
32. ginger
33. ginkgo
34. ginseng
35. golden seal
36. hawthorn
37. hops
38. horehound
39. horseradish
40. horsetail
41. joe-pye weed
42. juniper communis
43. Juniper, cedar
44. kelp
45. lavender
46. lemon balm
47. licorice, wild
48. lobelia, inflata
49. mallow, marsh
50. manzanita
51. mistletoe
52. motherwort
53. mullein
54. nettle
55. oats
56. oregon grape
57. passion flower
58. pennyroyal
59. peppermint
60. plantain
61. pleurisy root
62. poison hemlock
63. Poison water hemlock
64. pomegranate
65. prickly ash
66. raspberry
67. red clover
68. rose, wild
69. rosememary
70. safflower
71. saffron
72. sage
73. saint John's wort
74. sarsaparilla
75. sassafras
76. saw palmetto
77. senna
78. shepherd's purse
79. skullcap
80. skunk cabbage
81. slippery elm
82. spearmint
83. squaw vine
84. sumac
85. sweet cicely
86. Sweet flag
87. turkey rhubarb
88. turtle bloom
89. uva-ursi
90. valerian , officinalis
91. watercress
92. white oak bark
93. White pond lily
94. wild lettuce
95. Wild yam
96. willow
97. wormwood
98. yarrow
99. yellow dock
100. yucca


burdock.jpg (44,039 bytes)

Burdock

elecampane.jpg (49,409 bytes)
Elecampane
    yucca.jpg (50,364 bytes)
Yucca
   
ALFALFA (Medicago sativa)
lucerne

Description: An introduced perennial herb growing 2-3 ft. Stems erect, flowers violet blue to mixed
yellow, borne in loose clusters at ends of branches. Seed pods contain many small kidney-shaped
seeds. Leaves trifoliate, toothed two thirds down from tip. Cultivated for hay, planted for forage on
foothill ranges throughout the world.

Uses: Edible, Medicinal. Fresh green leaves have 8 essential enzymes, a source of 10 different
vitamins, especially high in A,C,D,B2,B6, K , iron, calcium. Sprouted seeds for salads or
health drinks. Actions: Appetizer, diuretic, tonic. A tea of the leaves taken every day is
known to relieve urinary and bowel problems, eliminate retained water, help with peptic ulcers
and improve appetite.

ALOE (Aloe vulgaris)

Description: Not a cactus. Perennial plant, stiff, erect spikes with clusters of flowers from 2-30 ft.
high. Leaves, long, thick, spiny and fleshy, crowded in rosettes at base of stem, ending in sharp
point. Leafless stalks bear dense clusters of tube shaped yellow and red flowers which contain
jelly-like pulp.

Uses: Medicinal. The gelatinous substance inside stalks are: Emollient, cell proliferant, purgative, vulnerary. A treatment for burns, scalds, internal and external ulcers, boils, arthritis, kidney ailments, psoriasis, bad complexion, skin. Used for wounds, ringworm, insect bites. Note: When piece of leaf stalk is broken off, for healing, the part not used will seal off and keep for several weeks. Use a sandy loam soil, indoors, keep repotting it to allow growth. Water when transplanted, wait 3-4 weeks, then once a week. Do not fertilize or over water.



AMARANTH (Amaranthus retroflexus)
green amaranth, redroot, pigweed

Description: Coarse, annual weed with stout stems. Numerous species. Taproot,
red with stout, hairy stem, 2-5 ft. tall. Leaves, dull, long-pointed wavy edges,
rough to the touch. Greenish flowers grow in clusters on tall bristly stalks. Black
seeds mature in the fall. A common weed found in wastes ground, fields, roadsides,
rich cultivated areas from coast to coast below 9000 ft.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Leaves, stems, seeds. Young plants make a mild pot-herb,
boiled about 15 min, or raw in salads. Abundant, shiny seeds make a nutritious flour. Parch
for an hour, then grind. Taken internally as an astringent it helps in diarrhea, excessive
menstruation, a wash for skin problems, a gargle for mouth and throat irritations. Take a tea,
cold, 1-2 cups a day or 1/2 to 1 tsp. tincture.

ANGELICA (Angelica atropurpurea)
wild archangel, high angelica, purple angelica

Description: A shrub, 8 ft. high. Stem, purplish with 3 toothed leaflets at tip of each stem. White or greenish flowers occur in clusters at end of stalk. Has a strong and peculiar, not unpleasant odor. Found in rich, low ground near streams and swamps and in gardens throughout the U.S.

Uses: Edible, Medicinal. Sharp flavored leaves are cooked with acidic fruit, shoots in salads, stems and roots as vegetables, seeds in pastry dishes. Rootstock, in the fall of 2nd year. The whole plant is: Aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, stimulant. Roots, 2nd yr., and seeds when mature used to treat stomach gas, induce vomiting, perspiration, bronchitis, rheumatism, gout and fever. Stimulates menstrual flow, helps with heart burn, colic, general tonic, colds, spleen, liver and in epidemics. The extracted oil used as a pleasant aromatic and tonic. Take 3/4 cup of decoction (1 tsp. root with 3/4 cup water) in 2 equal parts during day.

BARBERRY (Berberis vulgaris)
Stems, from 3-8 ft. high, reddish when young, a dirty gray when older.
pipperidge bush, jaundice berry, European barberry, sowberry

Description: Deciduous shrub. Roots, yellow on outside, bark, bitter.
Leaves, obovate. Bright red, oblong berries grow along spiny, grooved branches,
have an acid but agreeable taste, should only be eaten when ripe. Found in
Northeastern U.S. in hard, gravely soil, in rich soils in the western states.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Berries have acid but agreeable taste, should only be eaten when ripe, can be preserved, pickled. Actions: Hepatic, laxative, refrigerant. Bark of root is hepatic, berries are laxative and refrigerant for reducing fevers. The fresh juice is used to strengthen gums. A decoction of either the berries or bark makes a good mouthwash or gargle for mouth and throat irritations. Stem, bark and root are antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, used to improve liver action, liver problems including alcohol abuse. Bark from the stem dilates blood vessels, which lowers blood pressure. Avoid barberry when pregnant.

BETONY (Stachys officinalis)
wood betony, lousewort, purple betony

Description: Perennial, with a hairy, unbranched or slightly branched, square stem, 6-24 in. The pungent, scalloped leaves are opposite, more or less hairy on both sides. Lower leaves are oblong-cordate, upper, are more lanceolate. Pale magenta flowers are in spike-like whorls………….. in gardens, damp or dry meadows, on sunny slopes, forest paths.

Use: Medicinal. Anthelmintic, astringent, calmative, diuretic, expectorant, vulnerary. The flowering herb is helpful for asthma, bronchitis, heartburn, bladder, kidney problems, spitting blood, excessive sweating, varicose veins, worms, migraine, anxiety, indigestion, drunkenness, difficult labor. Juice of the plant or a poultice used externally for cuts, external ulcers, old sores. Steep 1-2 tsp. in 1 cup water, 5-8 min. Slowly drink 1-2 cups through the day. Roots stimulate the liver, but may cause vomiting and diarrhea.

BLACK COHOSH (Cimicifuga racemosa)
bugbane, rattle root, black snake root, squaw root

Description: Perennial shrub, 9 ft. or more. Creeping, underground stem is gnarled and twisted. Topped with slender spike of small white or yellowish flowers in feathery racemes 1-3 ft. long, slender and drooping. Leaves vary from ternate to pinnate, at times even further divided. Found in eastern, southern part of U.S. in rich open woods.

Use: Medicinal. Antispasmodic, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hormonal, sedative. Rhizomes and roots used by Native Americans to ease childbirth and as an antidote for rattlesnake bite. Colonists used it for yellow fever, bronchitis, coughs, asthma, itching, nervous diseases, uterine disorders, diarrhea, menstrual cramp, rheumatism, childbirth, headaches, coughs and asthma. Take 2-3 tbsp. of decoction, 6 times a day, cold, or 10-60 drops tincture. CAUTION: Large doses can cause symptoms of poisoning, nausea and vomiting.

BLACK WALNUT (Juglans nigra)

Description: Deciduous hardwood, 100 ft. tall, with rough furrowed bark. Alternate, pinnately, compounded leaves have a distinctive odor when bruised. Male and female flowers grow in separate catkins. Nut, covered with a green pulp coating while on the tree, turning black when on ground and stored. Found in moist well-drained soil throughout the U.S. and Canada.

Use: Medicinal. Anti-fungal, tonic, vermifuge. Inner bark of tree is a mild laxative. Peel of fruit, useful for treating parasites, worms in the body, ulcers and syphilis. Juice of fruit, useful for treating tapeworm, a laxative and as a gargle. Leaf infusion, used against bedbugs, and decoction for sores, herpes, eczema, syphilis and worms. Decoction of the bark, for skin diseases. Oil is effective for tapeworm, a dressing for leprosy type skin diseases (must be fresh, rancid oil is detrimental).

BLESSED THISTLE (Cnicus benedictus)
holy thistle, St. Benedict's thistle

Description: Herbaceous, 2 ft. high, reddish, slender, much branched and unable to keep upright with weight of its leaves and flower heads. Long, narrow leaves have prominent pale veins, irregular teeth ending in spines that clasp the dull green stem. Flowers, pale yellow. Subtending the flower heads are green scales tipped with a long, brown bristle. The whole plant, including leaves, stalks, flower heads are covered with a thin down. Cultivated in the U.S., occurring in waste places when escaped.

Use: Medicinal. Diaphoretic, emetic, emmenagogue, galactogogue, stimulant, tonic. The whole herb is used. When taken in large doses it acts as a strong emetic producing vomiting and should be used cautiously. Cold infusions of the plant (2 tsp.to 1 cup water) in small doses are helpful in weak conditions of the stomach and for producing an appetite. A warm infusion is very helpful in fevers of all kinds. Poultice or tea of the plant, externally for chilblains, wounds, sores.

BLUE COHOSH (Caulophyllum thalictroides)
beechdrops, blue ginseng, yellow ginseng, blue berry, squaw root, papoose root

Description: Round, simple, erect, 3 ft. high stem grows from a knotty rootstock and half way up it bears a large sessile, tri-pinnate leaf, leaflets, oval, petioled, irregularly lobed. The 6-petaled yellow-green flowers are borne in a raceme or panicle. Fruit, a pea-sized, dark blue berry borne on a fleshy stalk. Eastern and central U.S. in rich woods.

Use: Medicinal. Anthelmintic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, oxytocic, parturient. Rootstock used to regulate menstrual flow, to relieve cramps, to induce labor, children's colic. Should be given with other herbs and used with medical supervision. CAUTION: Can be irritating to mucous surfaces and cause dermatitis on contact. Children have been poisoned by the fruits.


BLUE VERVAIN (Verbena officinalis)
verbain, American vervain, false vervain, Indian hyssop

Description: A bristly perennial, with quadrangular stems reaching 2-5 ft. tall. Deeply cut lover leaves, smooth upper leaves oblong-lanceolate, gradually acuminate, serrate. Dense spikes of small, pale lilac-pink flowers, arranged in a panicle. Fruit is 4 nutlets. Eastern, central US in fields and thickets.

Use: Medicinal. Diaphoretic, emetic, expectorant, nervine, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary. A warm tea of leaves or flowering heads, taken often, for a natural tranquilizer, nervous headaches, depression, colds, coughs, fevers, congestion in the throat and chest, insomnia, stomach, bowel cramps, urinary problems, jaunice, menstrual cramps, intestinal worms, bowel complaints, dysentery. A cold tea acts as a tonic. Taken externally for healing sores. Root considered more active than the leaves. Decoction of the leaf for a hair tonic, eyewash. Tests, also shown, it has heart-strengthening and antitumor helps.

BRIGHAM TEA (Ephedra viridis)
desert tea, squaw tea, joint fir, Mormon tea

Description: Shrub, broom-like, resembling horsetail grass. The jointed green stems and branches of some species reach the height of 7 ft. although most are smaller. Two or three scale-like leaves grow at joints in stem and branches. Male and female cones appear on different plants, male cones, having yellow pollen sacs. Found in arid areas of the Northern Hemisphere, especially deserts of the southwest.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Most commonly used as a pleasant beverage by steeping 5 min.
The whole herb is used as a decongestant, and stimulant to the sympathetic nervous system. Frequent use of the tea may result in nervousness and restlessness. It should only be used with medical supervision, particularly if suffering from high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes or thyroid trouble.


BUCKTHORN (Rhamnus Frangula)
alder buckthorn, Frangula bark, black dogwood.

Description: Slender, tree-like shrub. Leaves, entire, not toothed, feather veined arranged alternately on the stem, not opposite to one another. Flowers, produced from wood of the preceding year and also on shoots of current year. Spreading, thornless branches have green bark when young, turning to brownish-gray when older. Blue and gray berry has
2-3 roundish angular seeds. Bees, very attracted to it. Grows in woods, mostly free from lime in northern and eastern US

Use: Medicinal. Cathartic, laxative, tonic. Only the dried seasoned,1-2 yr. old, bark should be used. The fluid extract is used as a gentle purgative in cases of chronic constipation. Liquid from the bark, boiled in ale, can be used for jaundice. It is more agreeable than the more popular R.purshianus (cascara sagrada). Wood of this shrub is used in making charcoal for gun powder makers, thus "black dogwood". Freshly stripped bark acts as an irritant poison on the gastrointestinal canal.


BURDOCK (Arctium lappa)
burr seed, thorny burr, hareburr,

Description: Large, biennial plant. Leaves, on long stalks, many veined, wavy-edged, resembling rhubarb, growing from a thick tap toot. Stout stalks, the second year, grow
4-6 ft. tall. Small, magenta pink and white, solitary or clustered flowers, followed by spherical burrs. Found along fences, roadsides, waste places walls, populated areas throughout the US

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Peel roots of young small plants, cut and cook like carrots. When flower heads start to form, the rough bloom stalk can be peeled and core eaten raw, or cooked. Change first cooking water to remove bitter taste. Actions: Aperient, blood purifier, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic. Root, in its 2nd yr. is an excellent blood cleanser which helps in skin diseases, burns, wounds, swellings, hemorrhoids, canker sores. 1 cup of decoction a day (1 tsp. root with 1 cup cold water, let stand 5 hrs, bring to boil) or 10-25 drops in water
3-4 times a day. Fresh bruised leaves, a remedy for poison ivy, oak. Seeds to be used only with medical supervision.

CAMOMILE (Anthemis nobilis)
common camomile, chamomile, Roman chamomile, ground apple, whig plant

Description: Low growing creeping or trailing plant with tufts of leaves and flowers, 1 ft. high. Root, perennial, jointed and fibrous. Stems, hairy, freely branching, covered with leaves, alternate, bipinate, finely dissected, downy to glabrous with sweet apple-scent. Solitary terminal daisy-like flower heads have a yellow conical center with 18 outer silver-white ray flowers drooping when in bud. Found throughout US as a common weed in dry fields, around gardens, cultivated grounds.

Use: Medicinal. Anodyne, antispasmodic, carminative, sedative, aromatic, tonic, stimulant. Helpful for gas, colic, fevers and restlessness in children, urinary infections and diaper rash. Use 2 tbsp. flowers to 2 cups water, heat to just short of boiling. Soothes toothache, earache, sore nipples and neuralgia, suppresses nausea, reduces inflammation and dark shadows under the eyes. As a poultice, to treat eczema and wounds. An oil, made of the flowers, for swellings, calluses and painful joints.

CATNIP (Nepeta cataria)
catmint, field balm, cat's wort

Description: Erect perennial, 3-5 ft. tall. Erect square branching stem is hairy and soft. Leaves, pointed, opposite, oblong or cordate with scalloped edges. Has a long leaf stalk with top being green and grayish green, whitish hairs underneath. Flowers, in whorled spikes of two-lipped, white or blue, spotted with lavender clusters. A native of Europe, now found throughout the US in fields, on dry banks waste places and chalky or gravely soil.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Tender leaves are added to salads, to flavor meat. Actions: Anodyne, antispasmodic, aromatic, calmative, carminative, diaphoretic. Root and mint scent leaf intoxicates cats and repels rats and flea beetles. A tea from the leaves and flowering tops, 2 cups a day (2 tsp. herb to 1/2 cup boi1ing water, steeped 10 min.) are used to treat colds, calm upset stomachs, for scalp problems, to reduce fevers and soothe headaches. Their mild sedative action soothes babies with colic. Fresh leaves are used in making a poultice for bruises and are put into cat toys.


CAYENNE (Capsicum frutescens)
American or African pepper, chili pepper red pepper, bird pepper

Description: Perennial in its native tropical America, but annual when cultivated outside tropical zones, 3 ft. tall or more. Glabrous stem is woody at the bottom, branched near the top. Leaves are ovate to lanceolate, entire, and petioled. Drooping white to yellow flowers grow alone, in pairs or in threes. Ripe fruit or pepper is a many seeded pod with a leathery outside in various shades of red or yellow and 2 or 3 fruits per leaf joint.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. The small chilies are used to help preserve food in hot countries.
Crushed chilies make cayenne pepper to flavor foods. Actions: Appetizer, digestive, irritant, sialogogue, stimulant, tonic. Stimulates the circulation and gives immediate action to the heart, without increased pulsation. Helps in sore throat, headaches, hemorrhaging, indigestion, alcoholism, colic, low fever, hemorrhoids, eases shingles, swallowing disorders, cramps and pains in the stomach and bowels.(Use 1/2 to 1 tsp. pepper per cup, boiling water), take warm, 1 tbsp. at a time. Infused oil for massage to relieve rheumatism, cold limbs and neuralgia. Put on cuts to stop bleeding, eliminates scarring.

CHAPARRAL (Larrea divaricata)
creosote bush, greasewood, chaparro, dwarf evergreen oak.

Description: Perennial bush, 4-8 ft. Dark green stems, leaves can be yellowish-green in dry seasons. Strong scented leaves are opposite, divided into 2 leaflets. Flowers, yellow with 5 petals, only 1/2 inch across appearing in spring and winter. Fruit, rounded, up to 1/4 inch long, covered with white hairs. Found in desert areas, alkali soil in south western part of US Leaves and stems contain gums, resins, protein, esters, acids, alcohol, small amounts of sterols, sucrose and volatile oils. No alkaloids are detected and is non-toxic.

Use: Medicinal. Antiseptic, blood purifier, diuretic, expectorant, tonic. Leaves, stems used to help in acne, styes, skin conditions of warts and blotches, arthritis, cancer, chronic backache, hair growth, better eyesight, increases bowel elimination (not laxative), kidney infection, prostate gland trouble, throat, bronchial, pulmonary conditions and weight reducing. Taken in capsules according to directions. American Indians sharpened the young branches, placed in fire till hot and inserted into tooth cavities to relieve pain.


CHICKWEED (Stellaria media)
adder's mouth, stitchwort, scarwort, satin flower, starweed

Description: Annual or short-lived perennial with creeping or ascending, succulent stems with a conspicuous line of hairs on one side. Small leaves are paired, broadly oval, pointed. Numerous, tiny white flowers, 1/4 in. across, have petals shorter than the sepals. Found in lawns, gardens and around dwellings all over the world.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Raw tender leaves, stems added to salads. Better when boiled 5 min. and served as greens. Note: debating, now, on its safety because of the saponin content. The whole Herb is astringent, carminative, demulcent, emollient, expectorant, laxative. A decoction is used for a cleansing tonic that relieves serious constipation, eases pain in hemorrhoids, cramps and aids in losing weight. 1/2 -1 cup a day (1 tbsp. herb to 1/2 cup water, steeped). A poultice or ointment soothes itching skin, eczema, psoriasis and surface veins, rheumatic joints, draws out splinters and heals wounds.

COMFREY (Symphytum officinale)
bruisewort, knitbone, slippery root, gum plant, healing herb

Description: Perennial with a deep taproot. Plant contains a glutinous juice. The 3-5 ft. stem is angular and hairy bearing bristly, oblong, lanceolate leaves, some petioled, some sessile. White to blue-mauve flowers grow in forked scorpiod racemes and have a tubular corolla resembling a glove finger. Cultivated throughout Europe, US, occasionally escaped, thrives in almost any soil, doing well in moist areas or in shade.

Use: Edible and Medicinal. Young leaves make good greens. Roasted roots, together with chicory and dandelion roots makes a coffee substitute. Actions: Anodyne, astringent, cell proliferant, demulcent, emollient, expectorant, hemostatic, refrigerant, vulnerary. Contains calcium, potassium, phosphorus and allantoin which speeds up cell renewal in damaged muscles and broken bones. Leaf tea helps inflamed, ulcerated digestive tracts and coughs. Leaf poultices reduces swelling and bruising around sprains, arthritic joints, speeds healing of cuts, burns, open sores, eczema. Internal use of large amounts of roots and leaves should be avoided. Latest research indicates the whole plant may have anti-cancer properties. Leaves make excellent manure and fertilizer.


CRAMP BARK (Viburnum opulus)
guelder rose, high cranberry, rose elder, snowball tree, dog rowan tree, black haw

Description: Deciduous, thicket-forming shrub, 12 ft. tall, with smooth gray branches. Winter buds are scaly. Leaves, maple-like, pubescent beneath with 3-5 acuminate lobes, coarsely, irregularly toothed, turns burgundy in autumn.
In early summer, conspicuous, large, nearly flat-topped heads of snow-white flowers appear. Berries are bright red. Cultivated and wild throughout US

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Fruit, used as substitute for cranberries, makes a tart jelly or distilled spirit. Toxic and bitter if eaten fresh. Bark from the stem is a nerve-sedative, uterine antispasmodic which reduces muscle cramps in intestinal spasms. Use 1 tsp. to 1 cup of bark decoction in tablespoon doses. Native Americans used it to treat mumps. Note:Viburnum prunifolium bark is used similarly.V.trilobum was used by the Alberta Cree tribe for many illnesses, especially high fever and pain relief.


DESERT SAGE (Artemisia tridentata)
western sagebrush, tall wormwood, basin sagebrush
Description: A shrub, 12 feet tall, much branched, dark stem. Foliage, aromatic. Flowers, yellow or whitish, in densely packed heads. Leaves, lanceolate with 3 rounded dentates
(teeth) on the tip of each leaf. Eastern U. S., in New England on ranges, hillsides, in dry and sandy soil.

Use: Medicinal. Blood purifier, resolvent, tonic. A tea of the leaves for headaches, stomachaches, vomiting, diarrhea, sore throat, antidote for poisoning When making a tea, steep 3 times using the same sage but new water each time. Allergic reaction may result from use. Use with professional supervision. A hot poultice of steamed herbs used externally for bruises, rheumatic pains. A wash made for bathing wounds, new born babies, an excellent hair rinse.


ECHINACEA (Echinacea angustifolia)
Purple cone flower, black sampson

Description: Perennial plant with stout, bristly stem bearing hairy, alternate, linear-lanceolate leaves which taper at both ends. At times, base of leaf is winged; leaf margins are toothed and the top leaves lack petioles. Distinctive flower features 12-30 large spreading, dull-purple rays and conical disk made up of numerous purple, tubular florets. Native to central US in dry open woods, on prairies, road banks, widely cultivated.

Use: Medicinal. Antiseptic, depurative, digestive. The rhizome is a very effective
immune system stimulant, without toxicity, stimulating the body's defenses against disease; also antibiotic, antiviral, restores inflamed connective tissue. Treats fevers, infections, fevers, promotes digestion and is a blood-purifier which helps in skin conditions such as eczema, acne and boils and may reduce allergies. Take 1tbsp, 3-6 times a day of decoction (1 tsp. granulated root in 2 cup boiling water for 1/2 hr.) Used externally , combined with myrrh said to help in typhoid fever. Note: Do not use the rootstock once it has lost its odor. E.purpurea used similarly.


ELDER (Sambucus caeruleus)
elder berry, blue-berried elder

Description: Large clustered shrub or tree. Opposite leaves, divided into 5-9 lanceolate leaflets, sharply serrate. Large flat-topped umbels of small, cream to white flowers. Berry-like fruit nearly black, with powdery coating gives blue cast. Found in damp places, woods, valleys throughout North America.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Flower heads, containing rutin, vitamins, minerals, oils, can be dipped in batter and fried. Berries, a rich source of vitamin A, C. Actions: Cathartic, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, purgative, stimulant. Juice from green leaves, used externally alleviates effects of poison oak. Tea from flowers, for colds, flu, fevers, appendicitis, sore eyes, skin diseases, internal ulcers. Used with peppermint, even better. Root bark tea for headache, mucous congestion, labor in childbirth. Seeds of the red berry elder (S. racemosa) are toxic. Use only seedless berries in any Elder species, cook berries before eating.


EVENING PRIMROSE (Oenothera biennis)
common evening primrose, fever plant, field primrose, King's cureall

Description: Coarse biennial or annual, with stout, soft and hairy erect stem.
Leaves, alternate, rough-hairy, lanceolate, taper-pointed, about 3-6 in. long. Yellow, lemon-scented flowers, 1-2 in. across, open at dusk and grow in spikes. Fruit is an oblong, hairy capsule. Found in dry meadows, waste places and along roadsides throughout the US

Use: Edible, Medicinal. The entire plant is edible. Seeds of different species are gathered in the fall, parched and ground into flour. Roots, dug in the spring and cooked, make a good source of food. Actions: Astringent, mucilaginous. Root tea, used for mental depression, stimulates the liver, spleen and digestive system. Can be made into an ointment for rashes and other skin irritations. Roots or tops, boiled in honey, make a soothing cough syrup. Seed oil is helpful for the skin, menstrual problems, hyperactivity, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, arthritis, alcoholism, anorexia, nervosa, lowers blood pressure.


EYEBRIGHT (Euphrasia officinalis)
euphrasia

Description: Small annual, 2-8 in. tall, varying in size. Purple or green stem is erect, wiry. Tiny leaves are oval with scalloped edges. Flowers are white or purplish with yellow spots and red veins. Found throughout Europe, North America. Will not grow readily in a garden if transplanted, unless protected by grass, because it is semi-parasitic, it relies on part of its nourishment from the roots of certain grasses found in poor meadowland.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Bitter leaves, used in salads. Actions: Astringent. An infusion of the whole plant or strained juice from the fresh, crushed stems is a general eye tonic. Useful as an eye wash for strain, infections and gives a sparkle to the eye. Bath eyes in warm infusion 3-4 times a day (2 tbsp. fresh herb to 2 cups boiling water). Recommended in diseases of the sight, weakness of the eyes, eye irritation and runny nose due to hay fever and sinusitis.

FENNEL (Foeniculum officinale)
sweet fennel, wild fennel

Description: Biennial or perennial with finely cut feathery foliage. Finely grooved stems are upright, hollow. Up to 5 ft. tall, with thin, straight, finely-cut leaves. Flat clusters of compound umbels of yellow flowers grow at end of the stems above the foliage. Fruit consists of 2 joined carpels, taking an oblong form with ribs. Looks like dill but more coarse, taller. Both leaves, seeds have a licorice flavor. Found on dry banks, vacant lots, fields or cultivated. Commonly cultivated.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Seeds used for flavoring drinks, breads, fish, pies, sauces and sprouted for salads. Actions: Antiflatulant, antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant. Seeds are chewed to ease indigestion, to relieve hunger. A steeped tea used for, constipation, increased breast milk and to regulate menstruation. Take every half hour in small doses till relieved. Root extract is detoxifying, diuretic. Helps repair liver after alcohol damage. Fennel oil should not be used by epileptics or young children.

FENUGREEK (Trigonella foenum-graecum)

Description: An annual long taproot sends up a round stem with few branches. Leaves are trifoliate, on hairy petioles with obovate leaflets. Flowers are axillary, yellowish-white. Fruit is a 16 seeded compressed, malodorous legume. Widely cultivated for culinary and medicinal uses.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Ground, roasted seeds used in seasoning foods, a maple flavor for sweets. Green leaves from sprouted seeds, rich in iron, added to salads. Mature, larger leaves, chopped and served fresh or curried. Soaked seeds used in skin-softening lotions, powdered, added to oil, for a lip salve or scalp tonic. Actions: Expectorant, mucilaginous, restorative. Seeds used to strengthen recovery from an illness, bronchitis, fevers, gargle for sore throat, increases breast milk, oral contraceptive, restores hair growth, aphrodisiac, reduces cholesterol and urine sugar in late-onset diabetes. Add 2 tsp. seed to 1 cup water, let stand 5 hrs, boil 1 min. Take 2-3 cups a day. Poultice of ground seeds for arthritis, gout, sciatica, swollen glands, tumors, sores, skin irritations

FLAX (Linum usitatissimum)
common flax, flax seed, linseed, lint bells, winterlien

Description: Annual. The erect, slender, glabrous stem has few branches, bears alternate, sessile, simple, entire, lanceolate to oblong leaves. Each branch has 1-2 blue or violet-blue, flat, 5 petaled flowers. Fruit is a 10 seeded capsule, seeds are smooth, flattened, shiny, oily and brown. Cultivated in the US, mostly northwestern states, found wild along roadsides, railroad lines, waste places.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Seeds, mineral-rich, yield cold-pressed oil for cooking, an essential fatty acid. Hot pressed linseed oil for artists, industrial uses. Actions: Demulcent, emollient, purgative. Seeds contain a soothing mucilage. Oil contains essential fatty acids that help remove heavy metals from the body, reducing risk of thrombosis. Used for treating nutritional deficiencies. A decoction of the seeds, used for coughs, lung and chest problems, digestive, urinary disorders and to eliminate gall stones. Internal overdoses may cause poisoning as can the immature seed pods. Use only ripe seeds.


GARLIC (Allium sativum)
clove garlic

Description: Perennial, has a clustered bulb made up of several bulblets (cloves) enclosed in a papery tunic. Single stem, smooth, round, surrounded at the bottom by tubular leaf sheaths from which grow the long, flat, linear leaves. Stem, topped by a rounded umbel of small, white flowers. The entire umbel is at first enclosed in a teardrop-shaped leaf, which eventually falls off. Widely cultivated.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. A versatile seasoning which can be used in just about every dish. Actions: Anthelmintic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, antifungal. Bulb contains, iron, vitamins and mildly antibiotic. Taken raw, 2-3 cloves, relieves various problems with poor digestion, purifies the blood, helps control acne, reduces blood pressure, cholesterol and clotting. Helps in candida, cholera, salmonella, dysentery. It clears phlegm, helps in colds, bronchitis, tuberculosis and whooping cough. A cold extract used as an enema for intestinal worms, especially pin worms.


GENTIAN (Gentiana andrewsii)
closed gentian

Description: Perennial with several smooth ascending stems, 3-4 ft. or more in height.
Lance-shaped leaves are opposite to one another at each joint. A cluster of crowded, tubular greenish-white to purplish-green flowers grow at the top of the plant……
Eastern , central U. S. in wet areas.

Use: Medicinal actions: Anthelmintic, antiseptic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, stomachic, tonic. Rhizome and roots collected in autumn and dried is one of the most useful of the bitter vegetable tonics. Helps in exhaustion from chronic disease, to strengthen the human system, female weaknesses, jaundice, appetite. For dyspeptic complaints it is more effective than Peruvian Bark.

GINGER (Zingiber officinale)
black ginger, white ginger, African ginger, race ginger

Description: Perennial root which creeps and increases under-ground in tubular joints. In the spring, sends up, from its roots, a green reed-like stalk with narrow lanceolate leaves about 2 ft. high, which die down annually. The flowering stalk rises directly from the root, ending in an oblong scallop spike. From each spike a white or yellow blossom grows.
Indigenous to tropical Asia and cultivated in tropical areas.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Rhizome, used fresh, dried, pickled, preserved. Used in
desserts, drinks, other dishes. Shoots, leaves, flowers, eaten raw or cooked. Actions: Adjuvant, appetizer, carminative, diaphoretic, sialogogue, stimulant. Crystallized or infused ginger suppresses nausea. Steam inhalation treats colds, lung infections. Ginger tea aids circulation, eases indigestion and flatulence, reduces fever, cleanses system through perspiration. Chopped fresh pieces or powdered root added to bath helps relieve sore muscles or pain from a fall etc. Add oil to massage blend to relieve muscular pain, rheumatism and fatigue.

GINKGO (Ginkgo biloba)
maidenhair tree

Description: Glabrous, sparsely branched tree, 120 ft. tall. Leaves, alternate or in clusters and fan-shaped with parallel veines, on long slender petioles. Flowers, catkin-like. Fruit, drupe-like, about 1 in. long, yellowish, with ill-smelling pulp surrounding the thjn-shelled, creamy-white nut which contains an edible sweet kernel.
Native of east China and now cultivated throughout the U.S. as a street or ornamental tree.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Kernel (seeds),gathered in the fall, edible. Actions: Antibiodic, pulmonary, vesicant. Leaves, seeds have vascular integrity, used in Chinese medicine for lung problems. Extract from yellow fall leaves strengthens blood vessels, reduces production of tissue-damaging free radicals, which reduce clump-forming blood platelets.(remove toxic flesh from seeds and cook) Said to improve brain efficiency, cellular energy. Use with medical supervision.


GINSENG (Panax quinquefolium)
American ginseng, five fingers, five-leafed ginseng, redberry

Description: Perennial, a fleshy root, sometimes resembling human form. Leaves, palmate, divided into 4-5 sharp-toothed, oblong-lance-shaped leaflets. Whitish flowers are in round umbels. Plant, topped by a solitary simple umbel of greenish-yellow flowers. Fruit a small, red, edible, drupe-like berry. Only use roots 5 yrs.old, or older. Found growing wild in eastern North America, now, mainly under cultivation.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Red berry is edible. Actions: Demulcent, panacea, stimulant, stomachic. American and Asiatic ginseng root have essentially the same constituents. Useful in fevers, inflammatory illnesses, hemorrhaging and blood diseases. Helps promote mental and physical vigor, promotes appetite and digestive problems. Used by women for normalizing menstruation and easing childbirth. Use root, collected after flowering and dried. Make into tea to your taste, and as needed.

GOLDEN SEAL (Hydrastis canadensis)
Yellow root, eye balm, ground raspberry, tumeric root, Indian paint

Description: Small perennial, with a thick knotty, bright yellow rootstock, sending up a hairy stem, 1 ft. high. Two palmately 5-lobed, serrate leaves grow near the top
and one solitary radical leaf on a long footstalk about 9 in. across. Stem, topped by a small, solitary, flower, greenish-white sepals that fall away when flower opens. Fruit resembles a raspberry, consists of fused, 2-seeded drupes. Grows in shady woods of eastern U.S., is scarce today, cultivated for its medicinal purposes throughout the U.S.

Use: Medicinal. Antiseptic, astringent, diuretic, laxative, tonic. Prepared root, used for mouth, skin disorders, stomach ailments, nausea and in combination with capsicum as a remedy for chronic alcoholism. A strong tonic for mucus membranes, liver, uterus and venous circulation, mouth wash, eye wash, vaginal douche, for external skin diseases, to relieve stomach ailments, nausea during pregnancy and a laxative. Steep 1 tsp. pwd. root to 2 cups boiling water, let stand till cool . Take 1-2 tsp. 3-6 times a day.

HAWTHORN (Crataegus oxyacantha) or species?

Description: Deciduous, thorn shrub or tree, 30 ft. high. Trunk or stems have hard wood, smooth, ash-gray bark, thorny branches. Small, shiny, serrated, 3-irregular toothed lobed leaves are dark green on top, light bluish-green underneath. White flowers with round petals grow in terminal corymbs. The fruit or haw, a 2-3 seeded, fleshy pome, scarlet on the outside, yellowish and pulpy on the inside. Various species found throughout the world. Note: The 1-5 in. straight or curved single thorns of the haw are not found on any of the outer native shrubs or trees on this continent which makes this genus easy to differentiate.

Use: Medicinal. Astringent, cardiac, diuretic, sedative, tonic, vasodilator. Leaves, flowers, haws are helpful in treating heart weakness caused by kidney disease, for irregular heart beat and artery spasms. It dilates the heart's blood vessels which controls both high and low blood pressure and nervous heart. A tea is also good for nervous conditions, particularly insomnia. Steep 1 tsp. flowers in 1/2 cup water. Take 1-1 1/2 cups a day, mouthful at a time. Use concentrated preparation under medical direction.


HOPS (Humulus lupulus)
common hops

Description: Perennial climbing vine. Stems are rough, generously armed with small curved prickles. Leaves are rough, opposite, cordate, serrate, 3-5-lobed. Flowers, yellowish-green, male flowers arranged in hanging panicles, female in catkins which develop into scaly, cone-like fruit in pairs with leafy, imbricated bracts and distinct scent of beer. Pacific west U.S., in rich, moist land, widely cultivated, mainly for the brewing industry.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. The young shoots are eaten as a vegetable and the leaves blanched for soups. The ripe, female flower cluster, called "strobiles" are added to beer to flavor, clarify and preserve it. Actions: Anodyne, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, sedative, tonic. Hop tea is a nerve tonic, a mild sedative and a muscle relaxant. Pillows made of muslin and stuffed with dried hops and lavender seemed to induce sleep, calm the nerves and prevent nightmares. The estrogen content increases lactation and is an aphrodisiac for men. The essential oil, used in perfumes and lotions. It can cause skin allergies.

HOREHOUND (Marubium vulgare)
White horehound, marrubium, hoarhound

Description: Perennial, with a fibrous, spindle-shaped rootstock that sends up numerous bushy, square, downy stems. Leaves are opposite, petioled, usually wrinkled, roundish-ovate, rough on top, wooly underneath. Small, white, two-lipped flowers have a spiny calyx and grow in axillary whorls. U.S., Canada, Mexico, Europe in waste places, fields, pastures.

Use: Medicinal. Diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant, tonic. The prepared herb is an excellent remedy for coughing and bronchial problems, used for fevers, nervous heart conditions, to calm heart action, for expelling worms, a liver tonic, laxative, jaundice, hysteria and externally for earaches. Known as a soothing syrup and tonic candy, which at one time could be found in most grocer shops and a favorite with children. Use 1 tsp. herb in 1/2 cup water. Take 1-1 1/2 cups a day, mouthful at a time.

HORSERADISH ( Cochlearia Armoracia) or (Armoracia rusticana)?
mountain radish, great raifort, red cole

Description: Perennial, with a long, white, cylindrical or tapering root. Produces a 2-3 ft. high stem in the second year. Large basal leaves, lanceolate with scalloped edges. A panicle of numerous, small, white 4-petaled flowers appear during June, July. Throughout U.S., usually cultivated.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Only the fresh root is effective. Can be preserved in fridge, packed in damp sand for months or pickled, made into a cream sauce for a condiment. Young leaves, added to salads. Fresh, grated root clears sinuses. Has antibiotic properties, a decongestant, stimulates digestion, circulation, eliminates mucus and waste fluids. For lung and urinary infections and used in a poultice for bronchitis, arthritis.


HORSETAIL GRASS (Equisetum arvense)
scouring rush, Joint grass, shave grass, bottle brush, pewterwort

Description: Stems spring from a creeping rhizome or root-stock which produces, at its joints, a number of roots. Two kinds of stems are produced, fertile and barren. They are erect, jointed, brittle, grooved, hollow except at the joints. There are no leaves. Barren horsetail has a single thin stem which resembles the trunk of a tiny pine with the green shoots that branch out from it in a series of levels. Fertile horsetail grows upward in one bare stalk bearing a terminal cone-like catkin. Canada, northern U.S. to California.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Young heads are eaten boiled or pickled, eating the older heads raw can be poisonous. The gritty, silica-coated surfaces of the older plants were used for scrubbing pans after an outdoor meal. Actions: The whole plant is Diuretic, astringent. Barren stems, after the fruiting stems have died down and used either fresh, which is best, or dried, in a fluid extract helps in edema, kidney and bladder problems, bedwetting. Strengthens nails, hair, enriches the blood, promotes regrowth, elasticity of tissues, arthritis, ulcers and eczema. Ashes are valuable in helping with acidity of the stomach, to stop bleeding.


JOE-PYE-WEED (Eupatorium purpureum)
sweet Joe-Pye weed, gravel root , queen-of-the-meadow, purple boneset

Description: Tall, graceful plant with rigid, erect stem, 5-12 ft. tall, purple above the joints, covered with elongated spots and lines. Leaves, oblong, pointed, rough above, downy beneath, in whorls of 4-5 on the stem. Margins are coarsely and unequally toothed, stalks, either short or merely represented by the contracted base of leaves. Purple flowers, in dense terminal inflorescence, heads very numerous. Found in low, swampy ground in eastern U.S.

Use: Medicinal. Diuretic, nervine. Leaf and root tea is prepared for a valuable remedy in edema, painful urination, gravel, gout, rheumatism, chronic renal and cystic troubles, colds, chills, fevers, diarrhea, liver and kidney problems. The popular name of Jopi or Joe-pye is taken from an American Indian who introduced sweating, for typus fever .

JUNIPER (Juniperus communis)
juniper berries, juniper bush
Description: Evergreen tree or shrub. Hollow, needle-like leaves are 3 sided, whitened above, in whorls of 3. Berry-like cones ripen, in their 2nd or 3rd yr, to blue-black and covered with a whitish powder. They contain 3 seeds. Throughout U.S. in dry woods, sterile hills.
Use: Edible, Medicinal. Use crushed, ripe berries for seasoning veal, roast of lamb, flavoring gin. Yields a brown dye. Actions: Diuretic, carminative, stimulant. Helps, for gas, cramps, convulsions, gout, sciatica, edema, nerves, parasites, kidneys (not when inflamed), ruptures, coughs. The antiseptic, diuretic, detoxifying oil is used to treat cystitis, acne, eczema, cellulite, rheumatism. Steep 1 tsp. crushed berries in 1/2 cup water for 15 min. Take 1 tbsp. 3 times a day or 10-30 drops of the tincture. Spray room, used by ill with infectious disease, with a strong solution of the needles. Also used to destroy fungi.


JUNIPER (Juniperus scopulorum or osteosperma?)
western red cedar, Utah Juniper, cedar berries

Description: Evergreen tree, 35-100 ft. high. Produces leaves of two kinds; the juvenile sharp, needle-shaped and the adult scale-like, opposite, acute leaves. Fruit is light blue when mature, glaucous, often bilobed, and 2 seeded. Found in the Rocky Mountains of North America, cultivated and wild. Scarcely distinguished from the Eastern Red Cedar counterpart, J. virginianaon .

Use: Medicinal actions: Alterative, diuretic, pancreatic, alterative. Primarily a urinary tract herb for cystitis and urethritis, said to be effective in diabetes. Berries most effective. Steeped berries for digestion, to ease gas, relieve joint aches, toothaches, arthritis, fevers. Use 1 tsp. crushed berries or 1 tsp. leaves, steeped in 1 cup water, for 15 min. Drink 1-3 cups a day. Heated berries were applied to wounds and sores for antiseptic and healing washes. Poultices from crushed berries and leaves, used for scalds, burns and sores.


KELP (Nereocystis Luetkeana)
bull kelp, bladder wrack, ribbon kelp

Description: A marine algae with long hollow stalks and large gas-filled, floating bladders. Most fresh, usable kelp is washed ashore during heavy seas. These plentiful algae flourish throughout the oceans of the world and along the U. S. sea coasts.

Uses: Edible, Medicinal. Part used is the whole algae raw or dried, the latter being a better flavor. A very nutritious food, especially high in potassium, calcium, iodine and many trace minerals.Use in a tea, or chop and add to cooking. Relieves and helps cure burns and scalds. It has been used to combat overweight, a blood purifier and an alternative which gradually changes a condition and brings back health.

LAVENDER (Lavandula officinalis)

Description: Perennial plant with stems, 1-2 ft. tall are gray-green, angular, with flaking bark. Gray-green leaves are opposite, sessile, downy, lanceolate to oblong-linear. Lilac colored, tubular flowers are arranged in successive whorls up the stem. Cultivated for its aromatic flowers. Grows best on light soil, sand or gravel, in dry, open, full sun, with good drainage.

Use: Medicinal actions: Antispasmodic, carminative, chologogue, diuretic, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic. The leaves and flowers, used for gas, migraine headache, fainting, dizziness, bacteria in the intestines, stomach problems, nausea, vomiting. Normally used in the form of an oil, distilled with water, from the flowers. A decoction of leaves can be used, instead. Steep 1 tsp. leaves, gathered before flowers appear, to 1/2 cup water, 5 min. Take 1/2 -1 cup a day.

LEMON BALM (Melissa officinalis)
bee balm, balm mint, cure all, garden balm, sweet balm, Melissa

Description: Bushy perennial with square stems up to 2 ft. tall. Light to medium green leaves are opposite, oval, round-toothed, smaller at the top, strongly lemon-scented. Small hooded, late summer flowers are from white, yellow or pale blue, growing in whorls. New flowers bloom higher up the stem, long after older blossoms have matured to seed. Throughout U.S. in moist, shady places, cultivated in gardens.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Fresh leaves add flavor to many dishes, oils, vinegars and liqueurs, potpourri, herb cushions, perfumes and in closets to deter moths. Actions:
Antispasmodic, calmative, carminative, diaphoretic, sedative. Relieves cramps, gas, helps in mood swings, chronic fatigue, nervousness, emotional stress, sleeplessness, headaches, colds, menstrual cramps, diarrhea, gas pain, herpes, viral infections. Use 1 tsp. chopped herb or leaves to 1 cup boiling water, drink warm as needed. Promotes longevity. Attracts bees, if rubbed on empty hives it encourages new tenants.


LICORICE (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
licorice root, sweet licorice, sweet wood

Description: Perennial, 2-3 ft. tall. Rootstock, wrinkled, brown on the outside, yellow inside, sweet to the taste. Stems start out round at the base, become angular towards the top. Odd-pinnate leaves have 9-17 ovate, blunt, dark green leaflets. Pale blue flowers grow in axillary racemes. Pod, glabrous with 3-4 seeded, reddish brown. Central, western U.S. widely cultivated.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Rootstock is used in flavoring food, tobacco, drinks, sweets and medicines. Actions: Adrenal tonic, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, laxative. Treats bronchitis, coughs, hoarseness, mucous congestion. Reduces fevers, allergies, asthma, gastritis, peptic ulcers, bladder and kidney problems. Strengthens the immune system, stimulates adrenal gland. A decoction makes a good laxative for children. Avoid in cases of high blood pressure. Glycyrrhizin in the roots is 50 times sweeter than sugar. For infusion or decoction use 1 tsp. rootstock to 1 cup water. Take 1 cup a day.


LOBELIA (Lobelia inflata)
Indian tobacco, pukeweed , gagroot, asthma weed, bladderpod

Description: Annual, hairy, 1-3 ft. tall. Contains a milky sap, much branched with an erect, angular, hairy stem. Alternate, hairy leaves with obvious veins, lanceolate and bluntly serrate. Pale violet, tubular flowers have a 2-lipped corolla with 2 erect upper lobes and 3 spreading lower lobes, occurring rather far apart in loose spike-like racemes. As flowers mature, an inflated ovoid pod is formed, containing numerous small brown seeds. Eastern and central U.S. in fields, waste areas.

Use: Medicinal actions: Antispasmodic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, sedative. The whole plant is used to treat asthma, whooping cough, fevers, sore throats, to induce vomiting. Used in lozenges, patches and chewing gums to appease the need for nicotine without addictive effects. Considered toxic. Use only with professional medical advise.


MALLOW (Malva neglecta)
low mallow, dwarf mallow, cheese plant, Malva rotundifolia

Description: Annual or perennial weedy herb. Creeping, branching stems are 6-24 in. long. Leaves, rounded, crenate, slightly 5-7 lobed, downy, on long petioles. Sessile purplish pink, trumpet-shaped flowers are small, solitary or clustered in the axils along the stems. Fruit round, flattened, resembling wheels of cheese. Whole plant has a slimy sap when crushed. Throughout U.S. in old disturbed earth, yards, roadsides, gardens, vacant lots.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Leaves are edible and highly nutritious. High in vitamin A, B, C. Young flowers used in salads, leaves and new shoots boiled as a vegetable, plant used to thicken soup. Demulcent and emollient properties make it useful in reducing inflammation, pain, soothing to sore throats, tonsillitis, indigestion and a soothing poultice, Used also as an expectorant and diuretic. Use 1-2 tsp herb to 1/2 cup cold water. Let stand 8 hrs. Take warm to lukewarm. (do not boil or steep in hot water)


MANZANITA (Arctostaphylos manzanita)
little apple,

Description: Shrub, 2-3 ft. tall, or 30ft. tall individuals. Smooth, matte-finished red bark, twisted branches. Large oval, gray-green to blue-green leathery leaves are smooth or raspy, pointed-oval, on short petioles. Flowers form little nodding clusters, white to pink, urn shaped, maturing into tart, red, orange or red-brown berries with 4-10 seeds. Pacific west U.S, most common in california or in foothills and moderately dry mountains

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Berries, when just ripe and not mealy, makes a pleasant, tart jelly or cider drink. Actions: Astringent, demulcent, tonic, vasoconstrictor. A tea or tincture of the leaves is used for cystitis, urethritis after consuming large amounts of sugar, grain, starch, fruit or alcohol binges, to alkalize over acid urine. Alternating with cranberry juice is also helpful. Drink 1 cup, 3 times a day. Do not use internally for more than 3 days, nor during pregnancy. A good sitz bath, after 24 hrs. of birthing. Helps in yeast infection, genital herpes, venereal, warts urinary infections, bladder gravel, kidney, water retention.

MISTLETOE (Viscum album)
birdlime, European mistletoe, all-heal

Description: Evergreen, semi-parasitic plant found on branches of deciduous trees, preferring the soft bark, especially old apple trees. Roots grow from the wood of the host. Stem is yellowish, smooth, freely forked, separating, when dead, into bone-like joints. Yellow-green leaves are opposite, tongue shaped, very thick, leathery. Pale green flowers appear from March to May, female developing into sticky white berries. Found in Europe, cultivated in the U.S.

Use: Medicinal actions: Cardiac, diuretic, nervine, stimulant, vasodilator. A tea from the leafy young twigs or leaves acts on the circulatory system, speeding up the pulse, lowering blood pressure. It also stimulates the digestion. Known to help in epilepsy and other nervous disorders. Used as a wash for leg ulcers, varicose veins and chilblains. 00Large doses have a detrimental effect on the heart. Eating the berries can be dangerous, especially for children. Use with care and under medical direction. Kissing beneath it is an ancient fertility symbolism.


MOTHERWORT (Lionurus cardiaca)
lion's ear, lion's tail, throw-wort

Description: Erect leafy perennial, 5 ft. tall, with rootstocks which send up several square, hollow, grooved stems, red-violet in color, at times. Leaves, all stalked, upper, lance-shaped and 3-lobed, lower, palmately, 3-7 lobed with the lobes strongly toothed, green above, white-hairy beneath. Small white or pinkish flowers appear in numerous small whorls in axils, the upper lip furry. Calyx has 5 sharp teeth. Throughout U.S. in waste places, vineyards, along fences and paths.

Use: Medicinal. Astringent, cardiac, emmenagoue, sedative, stomachic. Leaves and flowering tops are most commonly used for nervous heart problems, insomnia and for stomach gas, cramps, to promote menstruation and regulate menses and help in childbirth and menopausal problems. Also used for asthma, goiters and congestion of the respiratory passages. Steep 1 tsp.tops or leaves in 1/2 cup water. Take 1 cup a day, unsweetened, mouthful at a time. Cases of contact dermatitis reported, but rare.


MULLEIN (Verbascum thapsus)
flannel mullein, great mullein,

Description: Tall, stout, biennial, 1-8 ft. tall with an attractive spike of yellow flowers the 2nd year, which are sessile, cylindrical. The 1st year produces a rosette of large, fuzzy, gray-green leaves which are large, broadly oval, very hairy (felt-like). Stems winged by decurrent bases. Throughout U.S. in clearings, fields, pastures, waste places.

Use: Medicinal. Anodyne, antispasmodic, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, vulnerary. A tea from the leaves, and flowers, for an astringent. As a sedative in relief for coughs, respiratory, and pain. The oil, for earaches, sun burn, rashes, hemorrhoids, inflammations and bruises. Roots boiled for a decoction, and taken cold, aided in digestion and nervous problems. For foot pain, soften a large leaf on hot stone, fold and bind it to foot, also used as an insole, use soft, dry leaf for toilet paper, diaper etc. Plant can be cut, placed in a large bucket of water, flowers will continue to bloom for many weeks. Place them, as they appear in an oil or tincture for future use.

NETTLE (Urtica dioica)
stinging nettle, common nettle

Description: Perennial, with stiff, stinging hairs. Square,bristly stems, 2-7 ft. Opposite, cordate, deeply serrated leaves are pointed and downy underneath. Small, greenish flowers grow in axillary clusters.Throughout U.S. growing in waste places, gardens, roadsides, along fences and walls.

Use: Edible, Medicinal, Toxic. Young leaves and shoots, rich in vitamins A, C, protein, minerals, cooked as greens, brewed for beer. Pick leaves from the underside, folding top of leaf inside, using tough part of thumb and forefinger. When boiled for pot herb, skim nettles from top of liquid. Heating or drying removes the sting. Actions: anti-inflammatory, astringent, digestive, diuretic, hemostatic, tonic. Stimulates circulation and clears uric acid, relieving arthritis, gout and eczema. Seeds for tuberculosis, to treat lungs after bronchitis. A decoction of root used externally on scalp for hair loss CAUTION: Do not eat old plants uncooked. They can produce kidney damage and symptoms of poisoning.


OAT (Avena sativa)
oat straw, oat grain

Description: Annual grass with a fibrous root, producing a hollow, jointed stem from 1-4 ft. tall with more or less rough, pale green, narrow, flat leaves. Flowers, arranged in a loose terminal panicle, consisting of 2-flowered spikelets, 1 in. long. Hairy, grooved grain is narrow, with almost parallel sides. Widely cultivated throughout the world.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Oats grain, for nutritional value. Rolled oats for oatmeal, and in diets for convalescents and other illnesses, fine oatmeal for a body rub, a wash for dry skin. Actions: Antispasmodic, nervine, stimulant. Oat extract and tincture, useful as nerve and uterine tonics. Decoction of ripe plant treats depression, estrogen deficiency, shingles. Tea from oat straw for chest problems, for baths that help many ailments. Boil small pieces of oat straw in water, 1 hour. Strain.


OREGON GRAPE (Mahonia (Berberis) repens)
Holly grape, Rocky Mountain grape root, creeping barberry

Description: Evergreen shrub, 3 ft. or more. Leaves, pinnate, darker above than below,
5-9 leaflets in pairs along a thin but tough stem. Margins, wavy with prickly edges, turning red in the fall. Fragrant flowers, in dense, erect terminal often 3-headed clusters, are bright yellow, bloom early spring, ripening to dusty dark blue berries that are bitter and slightly sweet. Native of North America, in the northwestern U.S.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Berries, when ripe in the fall, for making jellies, beverage. Actions: Identical to Barberry in that the root has a hepatic and laxative action, berries are laxative and a refrigerant; however, Oregon grape is more effective in cases of liver problems and externally for staph infections and has a mild stimulating effect on thyroid function.


PASSION FLOWER (Passiflora incarnata)
maypop, passion vine, purple passion flower

Description: Strong woody perennial climbing vine. Stems, 10-30 ft. long, climbing by means of axillary tendrils. Leaves, cleft with 2-3 slightly toothed lobes. Solitary, axillary, white flowers with a purple, blue or pink calyx crown have numerous threads radiating from center. Fruits are egg- shaped, size of small chicken egg. When stepped on they pop. Native to eastern and central U.S., often cultivated in cooler climates.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Edible egg-shaped fruit contains a delicious white pulp, made into refreshing drinks and ice creams. Actions: Antispasmodic, diuretic, laxative, sedative. The whole plant is used to treat swollen and irritated eyes, the root as a general tonic. Leaves for a mild sedative, insomnia, anxiety, to prevent rapid heartbeat, reduce high blood pressure, relieves the muscle spasm of asthma, epilepsy and irritable bowel syndrome. A poultice soothes burns and skin irritations. H6armful in large amounts. Use professionally prepared medications.

PENNYROYAL (Hedeoma pulegioedess)
American pennyroyal, mock pennyroyal, mosquito plant, squaw balm, tickweed

Description: Annual, aromatic plant. Erect, square, branching stem, 18 in., bears small, opposite, thin, ovate leaves, sparingly toothed. Axillary clusters of small, tubular, lavender or purplish flowers are barely visible. Eastern, central U.S. on dry fields, open woods, widely cultivated. True pennyroyal Mentha pelegium does not occur in wild America.

Use: Medicinal. Carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, sedative. The herb, helps in colds, promote menstruation, taken with brewer's yeast to induce abortion. Helpful against nausea, should not be taken during pregnancy, nervousness, headaches, menstrual cramps and pain. Use 1 tsp. herb to 1 cup water. Take 1-2 cups a day. Use a wash for skin eruptions, rashes and itching. Repels ants and fleas and mosquitos.

PEPPERMINT (Mentha piperita)
Lamb mint, brandy mint

Description: Perennial hybrid, with menthol or distinct peppermint aroma. Erect, square, branching stems, tinged with reddish-purple, coming from connected underground roots. Opposite, dark green, ovate to lanceolate, serrate leaves, smooth with few hairs. Flowers pale violet in loose, interrupted terminal spikes. Mostly cultivated, found wild in moist cool, damp streams in the lower altitudes, except California.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Has many culinary uses. Actions: Anodyne, carminative, refrigerant, tonic. Preparations from leaves, taken for colds, coughs, fevers, nausea, cramps, indigestion, gas, stomachaches, headaches, nervous tension, insomnia, heartburn. It anesthetizes the nerves in the intestinal tract where Catnip and Angelica have a low-level drug antispasmodic effect. Steep 2-3 tsp. leaves in 1 cup water. Take 1 1/2-2 cups a day. After 12 days wait a week before resuming. Repels mice and rats.

PIPISSEWA (Chimaphila umbellata)
Bitter wintergreen, ground holly, prince's pine

Description: Small, perennial evergreen with leathery, bright green, oblong-obovate leaves, 1-2 in. long, with sharp, serrate margins, growing in whorls along tough stems, arising from creeping rootstalks. Pink, flesh or white flowers grow in small open nodding clusters, Reproductive parts form a broad, sticky, green cone in the center.Widespread in U.S. especially in the dry woods of the northern areas. C.maculata has an almost identical appearance, but with pronounced light spots on the leaves and found mainly in the western U.S.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. A traditional part of root beer, now found only in a few brands. Similar in use to Uva Ursi, Manzanita, Pyrola and Blueberry. Actions: Astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic. A stronger diuretic action with less irritation of the intestinal linings. Helpful in kidney weakness, chronic nephritis or long term skin eruptions. Steep 1 tsp. leaves (or plant) in 1/2 cup water. Take throughout day, mouthful at a time. Prolonged use of the leaf tea is said to dissolve bladder stones.


PLANTAIN (Plantago major)
common plantain, broad-leaved plantain, greater plantain, way bread

Description: Common perennial weed. Once identified, easy to remember. Leaves, broadly ovate, entire or toothed, characterized by a thick, channeled footstalk. Flower stalks, 6-8 in., tipped with long, slender spikes of greenish-white flowers but overshadowed by the brown sepals and bracts. The leaves of P. lanceolata are lance leafed, more grass-like, darker green, stems tipped by a short spike of tiny white flowers. Both, common around the world in moist waste places, lawns, stream beds in mountians.

Use: Medicinal. Astringent, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, hemostatic. Leaves of the fresh plant makes an excellent poultice for insect bites. Chew to make a bolus and place on bite. Leaf tea for thrush in children, hemorrhage, heavy menstruation, parasites, sore eyes, edema, bladder, lung, stomachache, stomach ulcers, skin problems, ringworm, toothache, dysentery, hemorrhoids, stimulates healing process. Steep 1 tsp. fresh or dried leaves in 1/2 cup water. Take 1-1 1/2 cups a day, mouthful at a time.


PLEURISY ROOT (Asclepias tuberosa)
Butterflyweed, colic root, "Immortal"

Description: Perennial, milkweed without milky juice. Fleshy white root produces several stout, round hairy stems, 3 ft.tall. Leaves, lance shaped, stem clasping toward the flowers. Many small, bright orange flowers with backward flaring petals and hooded crown occur in dense terminal, flat-topped umbels. Pods, 3-4 in long, furry and upright. Common in the Midwest along dry roadsides.

Use: Medicinal. Carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant. The root dried, boiled, chewed or made into a tea has been useful in pleurisy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, lung problems and other infectious diseases. Root poultice used for bruises. CAUTION: fresh root may produce undesirable symptoms.


POISON HEMLOCK (Conium maculatum)
spotted hemlock, poison parsley

Description: Tall, much-branched plant, parsley-like foliage. At base of the terminal umbel, of small white flowers, there are lance-shaped, deflexed bracts. Distinguished by its smooth stem, marked with red. Has a bitter taste, a mousy or musty odor. Throughout U.S. along roadsides, stream borders, waste ground. Deaths caused by mistaking the root of parsnip, seeds of anise, leaves of the sweet cicely, parsley, fennel, caraway and wild carrot.

POISONOUS: All parts especially seeds and hollow, fleshy, white taproot. One mouthful of the root will kill an adult. Symptoms begin quickly, burning in mouth and throat, vomiting, diarrhea, nervousness, trembling dizzy, dilation of pupils, muscular weakness, paralysis, coldness, weakened and slow heartbeat. Death occurs through respiratory paralysis


POISON WATER HEMLOCK (Cicuta virosa)
cow bane, water parsnip, fool's parsley

Description: Stout, erect, hollow stemmed, branching perennial, 2-6 ft. tall, from a thick root-stock. Lower leaves, large, long-stalked. Upper leaves, divided into three leaflets and each again into three. Small, white flowers spread to a flat-topped cluster similar to Poison Hemlock. Roots, when cut lengthwise, reveal air cavities separated by cross sections. Grows in swamps, marshes and along ditches. Throughout U.S. to Alaska. CAUTION: do not eat anything with leaves or blossoms resembling the poison or water hemlock without positive identification.

POISON: All parts are poisonous, especially the root. Nausea, salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, and tremors, followed by extremely violent seizures, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. Pupils dilated, high temperature. Death can occur

.

PRICKLY ASH (Zanthoxylum americanum)
toothache bush, yellow wood

Description: Aromatic shrub or tree, 10-25 ft. tall with paired short spines on the branches. Compound leaves, oval, toothed with 5-11 leaflets, lemon-scented when crushed. Tiny green-yellow flowers, in axillary clusters before leaves appear. Fruit, a small, dark berry-like capsule covered with lemon-scented, gandular dots, containing one or more shiny black seeds. Eastern, central U.S. in moist woods, thickets

Use: Medicinal. Anodyne, diaphoretic, irritant, stimulant, diuretic. Bark tea or tincture used by American Indians and herbalists for chronic rheumatism, dysentery, kidney, heart trouble, colds, coughs, lung ailments, uterine cramps. Berry tea given for sore throats. Bark chewed for toothaches. Bark and berries for digestive and lymphatic system, skin disease, nervous headaches, varicose veins. Use 1 tsp. dried bark or berries to 1 cup water. Take 1 cup a day. May have anticancer properties.

RASPERRY (Rubus species)

Description: Biennial upright shrub with creeping perennial roots. Stems, smooth, bristly, with or without hooked prickles. Leaves, alternatae, pinnate with 3-7 oval leaflets. Flowers, white, cup-shaped. Fruit, red, made up of cohering drupelets. Throughout North America in thickets, untended field, widely cultivated.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Fruit berry, delicious food, high in Vit. C, minerals, a flavoring, red dye. Actions: Anti-nausea, astringent, laxative. Remedy for diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headaches, to prevent miscarriage, increase milk, reduce labor pains, mild laxative, soothing to kidneys and urinary tract. Steep 1-2 tbsp.leaves in 1/2 cup water. Take 1 cup a day. A tea of the leaves, simmered 10 min. is used for washing sores, ulcers and raw surfaces.


RED CLOVER (Trifolium pratense)
trefoil, purple clover

Description: Perennial, with several stems, 1-2 ft. tall, arising from one root, slightly hairy. Leaves, ternate, leaflets ovate, entire, nearly smooth, ending in a long point often lighter colored in the center. Flowers, red to purple, fragrant, in dense, terminal ovoid or globular heads. Native of Europe and common in cultivation across the U.S., wild in mountain meadows, disturbed areas and along stream banks, light sandy soil.

Use: Edible and Medicinal. Indians of California, Arizona and elsewhere have eaten it and other species, raw or as a salad, but hard to digest. Actions: Altertative, antispasmodic. The whole plant is used for treatment of cancer, combined with other herbs, aids in whooping cough, bronchial troubles, chronic rheumatism, skin diseases, and syphilis. Poutices for local application. Tea from the flower drunk daily (1 tsp. to 1 cup water, steeped). Decoction of the roots used for a blood purifier. A recent medical report from the Mayo Clinic, states that it contains an effective anticoagulant that may be helpful in treating coronary thrombosis.

ROSE (Rosa species)
wild rose

Description: Perennials, that may form thickets, 2-3 ft. tall, or clusters of large bushes, depending on species and growing conditions. All wild species have a single row of petals, usually 5, with many typical yellow stamens, smaller than cultivated hybrids, color, basically pink. Stems, thorny, slightly waxy-sticky. Leaves, rose-pinnate with 5-9 leaflets. Flowers mature into hips, the fruit that turns from green yellow to orange, after a frost, to dark red. Found at all altitudes, mostly in mountainous areas, above10,000 ft.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Aromatic, cosmetic, culinary and craft uses. Actions: Aperient, astringent, stomachic. Infusion of dried flowers or buds, taken for diarrhea, headache, earache, dizziness, heart and nerve tonic, blood purifier, mouthwash, eyewash. Fruits (rose hips), gathered after the first frost, make a pleasant, tart tea, high in Vit. C.

ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Description: An evergreen shrub, with numerous branches, ash-colored, scaly bark. The needlelike leaves, opposite, leathery, thick, dark green above, downy white underneath with a prominent vein in the middle and margins which are rolled down. Flowers, pale blue or white grow in short axillary racemes. Originated in the Mediterranean, now widely cultivated.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Used for its aromatic leaves, kitchen seasoning. Flowers used fresh, as a garnish, or dried for decoration and for preserving food. Actions: Antiseptic, antioxidant, antispasmodic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, stimulant, stomachic. Aids in digestion of fat, in formula for losing weight, raises blood pressure, stimulates circulation which eases aching joints, promotes liver function, production of bile, digestion. A salve from the oil, for arthritis, eczema, bruises. A tea of the leaves used for a scalp wash to prevent baldness, a mouthwash for bad breath. Distilled oil of the flowering tops is invigorating, antibacterial, antifungal, stimulates central nervous system. Excessive amounts taken internally can cause fatal poisoning.


SAFFLOWER (Carthamus tinctorus)
dyer's saffron, american saffron, fake saffron

Description: Perennial, 2-3 ft. high, with a stiff, upright whitish stem, branching near the top. Leaves, oval, spiny, sharp-pointed, their bases half-clasping the stem. Fruits are somewhat 4-sided, white, shining, resembling little shells. Not related to Saffron, although the flowers are used similarly. Cultivated extensively throughout the world, sometimes escaping.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Oil from the seeds used for burning and culinary purposes. Action of the flowers is laxative and diaphoretic. Used in children[s and infants' problems. such as measles, fevers, eruptive skin complaints. Steep 1 tsp. flowers to 2 cups water and take warm.


SAFFRON (Crocus sativus)
Autumn crocus, Spanish saffron

Description: Small, perennial. In springtime, an onion-like corm produces grass-like, basal, linear leaves which are surrounded, as a group at the bottom, by cylindrical sheaths. Gray-green leaves have hairy margins, 1-2 ft. long corms produce a funnel-shaped mauve, lilac or white flower with 3 protruding vermillion stigmas. Widely cultivated.

Use: Edible, Medicinal, Poison. The stigmas and style tops flavor and color drinks as well as many dishes, especially rice. Actions: Anodyne, antispasmodic, appetizer, emmenagogue, expectorant, sedative, aphrodisiac (too much may be narcotic).Used in small doses for, coughs, fevers, cramps, to calm nerves, insomnia. Made into an ointment for bruises, gout, arthritis. Saffron contains a poison that acts on the central nervous system, can damage kidneys. Large doses can have severe effects. The use in medicine is rare.


SAGE (Salvia officinalis)
Garden sage

Description: A shrubby perennial. The strongly branched root, produces square, finely hairy stems, woody at the base. Leaves, gray-green, textured,opposite, downy, entire or finely crenate. Floral leaves are ovatrte, ovate-lanceolate. Purple, blue or white two lipped flowers grow in whorls that form terminal racemes. Commercially cultivated for a kitchen spice. Grows wild in southern Europe.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Fresh and dried leaves used to flavor foods, flowers tossed in salads. Actions: Antihydrotic, galactophygous, antispasmodic, astringent. Helps reduce perspiration, stops the flow of mother's milk. Tea also used for nervous conditions, trembling depression, diarrhea, a gargle for sore throat, tonsillitis, laryngitis. Steep 1 tsp. leaves in 1/2 cup water, 30 min. Take 1 cup a day, tablespoon at a time. Extended or excessive use can cause symptoms of poisoning. Crushed fresh leaves used to put on insect bites.


SAINT JOHN'S WORT (Hypericum perforatum)
Klamath weed, goat weed

Description: Shrubby perennial plant. Woody, branched root produces many round stems which put out runners from the base. Leaves, opposite, oblong to linear, covered with transparent oil glands, giving appearance of holes. Flat-topped cymes of yellow flowers, petals dotted with black along margins. Fruit is 3-celled capsule. Plant has turpentine-like odor.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Leaves are used in salads, liqueurs. Actions: Antispasmodic, antiviral, astringent, expectorant, sedative, vulnerary. Calming properties of the herb have been useful in treating bedwetting, insomnia, calms nerves, treats depression, menstrual difficulties, uterine cramping. A tea made from the flowers for, headache, insomnia, jaundice. Steep 1 tsp. dried herb in 1/2 cup water for 5 min., covered. Take warm 1/2 cup before breakfast, 1/2 cup before going to bed. Its use may make the skin sensitive to light. The oil extract , a good external application for burns, wounds, sores, bruises.

SARSAPARRILA (Aralia nudicaulis)
wild sarsaparrila, american sarsaparrila

Description: Herbaceous perennial with large, fleshy, horizontal, creeping roots from which grows a large solitary compound leaf. Leaves twice-divided, each 3 divisions has
3-5 toothed, oval leaflets. Flower stem comes from root, naked, 1 ft. high, terminating in 3 small, many-flowered greenish umbels. Eastern, central U.S. in moist woods.

Use: Medicinal. Carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, tonic. Root tea used for a pleasant tasting beverage for a spring tonic. The tea or tincture, a blood purifying tonic, for fevers, coughing, indigestion, gas. Tea used externally for skin problems, ringworm.
Steep 1 tsp. rootstock in 1 cup water. Take 1-2 cups a day.

SASSAFRAS (Sassafras albidum)
cinnamon wood, ague tree

Description: Deciduous tree. Stem, 10-125 ft. tall is covered with rough, grayish bark. Leaves, alternate, downy on the lower side, variable from ovate to elliptic, entire or 3-lobed. Small, yellowish-green flowers grow in racemes, blooming before leaves appear. Fruit, a pea-sized, yellowish-green drupe.

Use: Toxic, Medicinal. Anodyne, antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant. Root bark tea was a famous spring blood tonic and blood purifier, used for stomachaches, arthritis, high blood pressure, kidney ailments, colds, fevers, skin problems. A wash or poultice from the twig pith used for eye problems. FDA has banned it, safrole, found in the oil, reported to be carcinogenic.


SAW PALMETTO (Serenoa repens)

Description: Low shrub with thick, branched, creeping or horizontal stems above ground. At times erect, reaching tree-size. Leaves stiff, erect, fan-shaped, 1-3 ft. wide with numerous narrow, bladelike segments. Leafstalks usually longer than blades, with sawlike teeth on the sides, Leaves are fanlike, with sword-shaped leaf blades coming from a central point. Fragrant, ivory white flowers, 3-5 petals, grow in plume like clusters. Fleshy olive shaped fruits, dark-purple when ripe, surround 1 large seed and grow in large branched clusters. Eastern, central North America in sandy soils, pine forests, prairies, dunes.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Fruits, edible but bad tasting. The palm heart, a cooked vegetable or in salads. Actions: Diuretic, expectorant, tonic. Dried berries, as a tea for colds, asthma, a tonic to build up strength after illness, could have aphrodisiac powers.
Congestion. Steep 1 tsp. dried berries in 1 cup water. Take 1-2 cups a day.


SENNA (Classia marilandica)
American senna, wild senna, locust plant

Description: Perennial, 3-6 ft. tall. Stems, erect, smooth and round, slightly hairy, with even, pinnate leaves on long petioles. Each leaf consists of 8-10 narrow, oblong, pointed leaflets. Small yellow flowers are in loose clusters at leaf axils. Seed pod, a legume with joints twice as wide as long. Eastern U.S. in rich soils.

Use: Medicinal. Cathartic, diuretic, vermifuge. Leaves, gathered while plant is in bloom.
Since senna is somewhat griping, it is often combined with other herbs. Powdered leaves or tea, used for fevers, a strong laxative. Steep 1 tsp. senna leaves, 1 tsp. ground coriander with 1 cup boiling water for 1/2 hour. Take hot or cold, slowly, 3 times a day or 1/2 cup before going to bed. No more than 2 cups a day. A tea of the pods is milder, slower-acting. Combined with other anthelmintics to get rid of intestinal worms. A good mouthwash for bad breath.


SHEPHERD'S PURSE (Capsella bursa-pastoris)
Shepherd's heart, pick-pocket, toywort

Description: Annual with an erect, simple or branching stem, 6-18 in.tall. Basal leaves are in a rosette of gray-green, pinnatifid leaves. Stem leaves are small and clasping. Tiny white flowers grow in terminal cymes. Fruit is a flattened, heart-shaped or triangular, notched pod. Common in fields, waste places, along roadsides everywhere.

Use: Medicinal. Diuretic, styptic, hemostatic. A tea made from fresh or dried herb (seeds or leaves), stops bleeding, profuse menstrual bleeding, a styptic against hemorrhage, for diarrhea, dysentery and as a wash for bruises. Also used to regularize blood pressure and heart action, high or low, sometimes used to promote uterine contractions during childbirth.


SKULLCAP (Scutellaria lateriflora)
Blue skullcap, mad-dog-weed, helmet flower

Description: A perennial with fibrous, yellow rootstock producing a branching stem, 1-3 ft. high, with opposite, ovate, serrate leaves that come to a point. Axillary, pale purple or blue 2-lipped, hooded flowers are in 1-sided racemes from leaf axils. Eastern, central U.S. in
rich woods, moist thickets.

Use: Medicinal. Antispasmodic, diuretic, sedative, tonic. An infusion of the herb is good for spasms, convulsions, nervous conditions, such as excitability, insomnia, restlessness, rheumatism, said to be effective against rabies, thus mad-dog skullcap. Steep 1 tsp. dried plant in 1 cup of water, 30 min. Take 3-4 times a day.


SKUNK CABBAGE (Symplocarpus foetidus)
Polecat weed, meadow cabbage, collard, swamp cabbage

Description: A strongly skunk-scented perennial. The large, tuberous rootstock produces fleshy roots and broad, heart-shaped cabbage like leaves on thick leafstalks. Numerous small, purple flowers grow on a small, oval, fleshy spike (spadix) covered by a purple and yellowish green, hoodlike bract (spathe) with a clublike organ within. Flowers appear before leaves. Eastern, central and escaped throughout North America in rich, wet woods. One of the first spring wildflowers.

Use: Medicinal, toxic. Antispasmodic, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, slightly narcotic. Rootstocks and roots, used to treat respiratory ailments, hay fever, asthma, whooping cough, bronchial problems, congestion. Also for nervous disorders, spasmodic problems, arthritis. A wash used for stopping external bleeding. Take 1 cup tea a day, tablespoon at a time. Fresh root is toxic


SLIPPERY ELM (Ulmus rubra)

Description: A small to medium sized tree. Leaves, rough and sandpapery above, hairy beneath, sharply double toothed.Twigs rough-hairy. Older bark grayish, in flat-topped, nearly vertical ridges. Red flowered stamens. Solitary seed encased in round, waferlike, smooth surfaced wings. Eastern, central North America in rich soil, woods.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. The roasted nuts excellent eaten as is, ground into flour, or candied. Actions: Demulcent, diuretic, emollient. Inner bark is used for soothing properties, for sore throat, diarrhea, urinary problems. As a poultice for inflamed skin and sores. Used to make vaginal suppositories, enemas, vaginal douche. Steep 2 oz. or more of the inner bark in 1 quart water, 1 hour or longer, sweeten. Take 1 tsp. every 30 minutes.

SPEARMINT (Mentha spicata)
Our lady's mint, sage of Bethlehem

Description: Aromatic perennial. Rootstalk. produces erect 2-4 ft. high bright green aerial, square stems. Side branches emerge at a 45 degree angle in pairs from the main stem, with subtending leaves. Leaves, oppostie, lighter green than other mints, a little hairy. Terminal, lavender-pink flowers form long, pyramidal spikes, from several to many branches.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Used to flavor all kinds of foods. Actions: antispasmodic, antiseptic, diaphoretic, carminative, stimulant. Herb tea given for common women's complaints, for suppressed or painful urination. Although not as strong as peppermint, the pleasant flavor is used for almost any stomach or digestive problem. It is preferable for nausea, indigestion from a sick headache or migraine and for acid indigestion from a nervous stomach. Steep 1 tsp. herb in 1 cup water for 30 min. Take frequently, tablespoon at a time.


SQUAW VINE (Mitchella repens)
partridgeberry, checkerberry, deerberry, winter clover

Description: An evergreen with paired, roundish leavers along a slightly woody, creeping stem. Leaves, variegated with whitish lines. Pink or white 4 petaled flowers, in twin-like union terminate the stem. Fruit is a bright red berry, remain on stem through the winter. Eastern, central North America in moist or dry woods.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Berries edible, but dry, seedy and bland. Added to salads for color. Actions: Diuretic, tonic, astringent. The dried or fresh leaf or berry tea used mainly for a pregnancy tonic, delayed, irregular or painful menstruation, to ease chilbirth, piles, dysentery. As a wash for sore nipples, swellings, hives, arthritis. Good for uterine complaints, diarrhea, edema. Used as a substitute for pipsissewa. Use with medical advise.


SUMAC (Rhus glabra)
Smooth sumac, vinegar tree, scarlet sumac, mountain sumac, dwarf sumac

Description: Shrub with straggling branches, pale gray sometimes slightly red bark, 3-20 ft. tall. Twigs, leafstalks smooth, without hairs. Leaves, alternate, pinnate with oblong-lanceolate,11-31 serrate toothed leaflets, green on top, whitish underneath, turning red in fall. Small, greenish white flowers in dense panicles. Small, sticky bright red fruits with short appressed hairs grow in clusters. North America in fields and openings. Not to be confused with Poison Sumac which has white fruits, toothless leaves, growing in or near swamps.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Sour berries to make a pink lemonade-like drink. Actions: Astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant, tonic. A tea made from sumac bark or leaves, a gargle for sore throat, diarrhea. Tea of leaves, berries for urinary problems, bladder. Berry tea or syrup for fevers, sores, bed wetting. Root chewed for mouth sores. Decoction of root, branches for gonorrhea. Decoction of fruit as a wash to stop bleeding after chilbirth. Steep 1 tsp. bark, leaves or fruit in 1 cup water for 30 min. Take 1-2 cups a day, mouthful at a time.

SWEET CICELY (Myrrhis odorata)
garden myrrh, sweet chervil, anise root

Description: Thin branching stems grow upright from the tap root, 2-3 ft., with several, aromatic, finely-cut, fernlike leaves. Small, white nectarous flowers appear in terminal clusters, that ripen into large, narrow fruits. Both seeds, leaves have a slight anise scent. Seeds take up to 8 months to germinate. Native of Europe, found in light woodland, grassy places, moist shade, cultivated in gardens. North American Sweet Cicely is Osmorhiza longistylis.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. The anise-flavored, green seeds, eaten raw, sprinkled on fruit salads, to flavor liqueurs. Fresh leaves, chopped into omelets, soups, stews and cooked with acid fruits to reduce tartness. Roots, like fennel, grated into salads, picked or cooked. Actions: antiseptic, carminative, expectorant, digestive, tonic The whole herb can be used much like anise. Root tea for gas, mucous congestion, indigestion, lack of appetite. Leaf tea for anemia in elderly. Roots crushed into a poultice for boils.

SWEET FLAG (Acorus calamus)
calamus root, grass myrtle, sweet rush,

Description:. Fleshy rootstocks grow in matted masses, 1-3 ft. long. The long leaves are sword-shaped. Roots, leaves have a spicy smell. The three-angled scape is nearly as tall as the leaves, covered with tiny yellow green flowers. The tapering, fingerlike, yellow-green spadix juts at an angle from the 3-sided stem, distinguishing it from the poisonous irises or Blue Flag, with its dull, blue green, odorless leaves. Pacific West in swamps, marshy grounds, shallow lakes.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Leaf buds and tender inner parts of stem are used in salads, root can be candied. Actions of the rootstock: Carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, dedative, stomachic. Helps in stomach problems, stimulates appetite, relieves acute and chronic dyspepsia, gastritis. A Decoction of the rootstock used for a bath additive for insomnia, tense nerves. Add 1 lb. dried rootstock to 5 qrts. water. Bring to a boil, steep 5 min. strain. Add to bath.


TURKEY RHUBARB (Rheum palmatum)
Chinese rhubarb

Description: Perennial, conical rootstock, fleshy and yellow inside, produces large, palmate, somewhat rough, 7-lobed leaves on thick petioles, 12-18 in. long. The hollow flower stem, 5-10 ft. high also grows from the rootstock, topped by a leafy panicle of greenish or whitish flowers. Native of China, cultivated for ornamental purposes.

Use: Medicinal. Appetizer, astringent, purgative, tonic. The powdered root, used for both a laxative and astringent depending on amount used. Prolonged use not advisable, especially during pregnancy and those nursing babies. A tincture used to stimulate appetite and digestion. The leaf blades, not the stalks, can cause poisoning.


TURTLEHEAD (Chelone glabra)
balmony, turtlebloom, saltrheum weed, snakehead

Description: Smooth perennial with simple, erect, square stems reaching 2-3 ft. The opposite, short-petioled, shining, dark green, pointed leaves are serrate and oblong-lanceolate. White, swollen flowers with a strongly arching upper lip, resembling a turtle's head, is often tinged with pink or magenta and grow in dense terminal or axillary spikes. Fruit is an ovoid capsule. Eastern, Central U.S. in moist soils.

Use: Medicinal actions: Anthelmintic, aperient, cholagogue, stimulant, tonic. Leaf tea for indigestion, constipation, appetite, worms, fever, jaundice, laxative, liver diseases, fevers, inflammation. Flowering tops to treat worms, a contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. Externally, an ointment can be used for piles, inflamed breasts, painful ulcers, herpes, eczema. Steep 1 tsp. leaves to 1 cup water for 5 min. Take 1-2 cups a day.


UVA-URSI (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi )
bearberry, kinnikinik, pinemat manzanita, mountain cranberry

Description: A low, trailing evergreen shrub that is mat-forming, long trailing stems with papery reddish bark. Leaves are small, shiny-leathery, spoon-shaped leaves. Pink or white flowers are waxy looking, egg-shaped with small lobed mouths in small, closely-crowded, drooping clusters Fruit is a red berry. Found in exposed rock or sand throughout the U.S. in higher elevations. `

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Berries are dry and not particularly inviting when raw but quite pleasant when cooked, served with cream and a sweetener. Dried leaves used as a tobacco substitute. Stems, leaves, picked in the fall, brewed to treat headaches, to prevent and cure scurvy. As a diuretic and antibacterial for cystitis and urinary tract disorders and applied externally for back sprain. Roots have been used as a dysentery cure. Leaf tea for a soothing and astringent effect. Of great value in diseases of the bladder and kidneys. Add 1 tsp.leaves, soaked in alcohol or wine, to 1 cup boiling water. Drink 3 cups a day, cold. Excessive use, 2-3 days, can lead to stomach distress. Prolonged use can produce chronic poisoning.


VALERIAN (Valeriana officinalis)
All-heal, setwell, garden heliotrope, great wild valerian

Description: Valerians have similar appearances. They all form upright stems, 1-3 ft. with one or more sets of opposite leaves along the stem. The compound leaves are strongly divided, pinnate, lower ones, toothed and have a pea pod scent. Pale pink to rose or whitish flowers have a honey scent and grow in tight clusters. The calyx, when in flower, becomes a feathery pappus at the top of the fruit. Found in temperate parts of the world.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Musky root used in stews, perfumes. Actions: Antispasmodic, calminative, nerve tonic, sedative. Root preparations used to, induce sleep, a calming effect on stomach spasms, epileptic fits, hypochondria, depression, nervous headaches, hysterics, restlessness. A tea of the root,1/2 cup, used in the bath or vapor bath to encourage restful sleep. Used externally for ulcers, eczema, wounds. Do not take continuously or in large doses.


WATERCRESS (Nasturtium officinale)
Scurvy grass

Description: A perennial that thrives in cold water and begins its life cycle in early spring. It is connected to a creeping rootstock, the hollow branching stem, 1-2 ft. long, extends, with its leaves, above the water. Smooth, dark green, mustard-flavored leaves are odd-pinnate with 1-4 pairs of small, oblong or roundish leafltets. Small white flowers bloom in elongating terminal racemes. Fruit, a long, curved, linear-cylindric, partitioned pod. Naturalized in the U.S.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Leaves used in salads, soups. High in vit. A, C, iodine, when harvested before blossoms appear. Actions: Diuretic, expectorant tonic, purgative, stimulant, stomachic. Leaves, roots, young shoots, used for anemia, prevention of scurvy, goiters, heart trouble, blood cleanser, clears skin, respiratory and internal tumors.
Prolonged use, longer than 4 weeks, can lead to kidney problems. Do not harvest in polluted or stagnant water. Poisoning may occur if plant has absorbed heavy metals, toxins or have liver flukes.

WHITE OAK (Quercus alba)

Description: A native North American tree, 60-150 ft. Bark is light, flaky, flat-ridged. Leaves have rounded or finger- shaped lobes, whitened beneath when mature. Flowering male catkins appear in the spring. Fruit is an acorn, a common feature with all Oaks.
Throughout the world in many different species, but an oak is an oak.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Acorns are a familiar food, can be roasted as a coffee substitute. Actions: Astringent, tonic. Used as a gargle for mouth and throat irritations. An infusion of the bark, used internally to stop bleeding, reduce fever or externally for hemorrhoids, rectal problems.(red or black oak bark can be used in place of white for external uses).
Steep 1 tbsp. bark in 1 pint water, simmering for 10 min. Take up to 3 cups a day.

WHITE POND LILY (Nymphaea ordorata)
sweet water lily, white water lily,

Description: An aquatic perennial, small-branched rootstock produces large orbicular, entire
leaves that float on the surface of the water, dark green on top, purplish underneath. Large
many-petaled white flowers bloom above the water only 3 days, in the afternoon each day.
Eastern North America in ponds, slow streams.

Use: Medicinal actions: Antiseptic, astringent, demulcent. A tea made from the fresh root is used for a gargle, eyewash, vaginal douche, to heal sores. Root and leaves, made into poultices for cuts, bruises or into a lotion for smooth, soft skin. Throughout the world in wet places. Steep 1 tsp. herb in 1 cup water, 30 min. Take 1/4 cup 3-4 times a day. Do not mistake for Nymphaea tuberosa, a toxic water lily, distinguished by its tuberous rootstock and almost odorless flowers.


WILD LETTUCE (Lactuca serriola)
prickly lettuce, lettuce opium

Description: Annual or biennial, scruffy weed, 2-4 ft., with a milky sap. Leaves, alternate, pointed, deeply divided, clasp the stem and twist sideways to become perpendicular with the ground. Central vein of leaves is thick, riblike, prickly on one side, lighter green than the plant. A single stem starts with a small, yellow dandelion-like flowers and seeds, then divides into many small, thin floral stems. Throughout the world, most abundant from 4,000 to 6,000 ft. along roadsides and gravelly, waste places.

Use: Medicinal actions: Analgesic, antispasmodic, narcotic, sedative. The milky juice,
resembles a feeble opium without the tendency to upset the digestive system. Safe for children or sensitive adults. Used to induce sleep, nervous disorders, whooping cough, cramps. Overuse may cause insomnia. Indian women use the leaf tea to stimulate milk flow. Some medical people believe that the dried sap is psychological, because the taste and appearance is like that of opium poppy.


WILD YAM (Dioscorea villosa)
colic root, rheumatism root

Description: Perennial, twining plant, with long, knotty, crooked root-stocks with thin, smooth stems. Leaves, alternate, lower ones in whorls of 3-8 heart-shaped, hairy beneath, veins conspicuous. Small flowers, greenish-yellow, not showy. Male flowers in drooping panicles, female in drooping spicate racemes. Fruit, a three-winged capsule with winged seeds. Eastern, central U.S. in wet woods, on hedges, fences.

Use: Medicinal actions: Antispasmodic, diuretic, expectorant, and emetic in large doses. Root tea helps to relieve morning sickness, labor pains, leg and menstrual cramps, colic, gas, asthma, soothing to the nerves, neuralgia and pains in the urinary tract. Contains diosgenin, a precursor of progeserone used to make contraceptive pills, also yields cortisone and steroids, antiinflammatories to treat arthritis, and hydrocortisone creams for eczema.


WILLOW (Salix species)

Description: A tree,75-80 ft. high or a shrub. Deeply fused, dark gray bark is rough. Twigs, reddish brown. Ashy-gray leaves are alternate, lanceolate, serrate and silky on both sides. Male and female flowers occur on separate trees, appearing in catkins on leafy stalks at the same time as the leaves.

Use: Medicinal actions: Anodyne, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, tonic. Bark, from the new, smooth barked branches, used to alleviate pain, reduce fever, inflammation, internal bleeding, heartburn, stomach ailments, food poisoning. A decoction used as a gargle for gum and tonsil problems, as a footbath for sweaty feet, remove corns. Soak 1-3 tsp. bark to 1 cup cold water, 2-5 hours, bring to a boil. Take 1 cup a day, unsweetened, a mouthful at a time.


WORMWOOD (Artemisia absinthium)
Absinthe, green ginger

Description: A woody rootstock produces many bushy stems, 2-4 ft. high, bearing alternate, bi-tri-pinnate leaves with long, obtuse leaves. Numerous tiny, yellow-green, rayless flower heads grow in leafy panicles. Found in rocky hillsides, wastelands.

Use: Medicinal actions: Anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, febrifuge, stimulant, stomachic. Leaf tea, used for indigestion, gastric pain, lack of appetite, heartburn, gas, stimulates liver and gallbladder, improves circulation. Powdered flowering tops used to expel intestinal worms. For external uses, sprains, bruises etc. a fomentation is used. Use wormwood oil with medical assistance, it can cause poisoning with excessive use. Steep 2 tsp. leaves or tops in 1 cup water, 5 min.
Take 1/2 cup a day, a teaspoonful at a time.

YARROW (Achillea millefolium)
milfoil, ladies' mantle, thousand leaf

Description: Perennial, forms mats of interconnected roots and feathery basal leaves. Tall, flowering stalks are topped with flat umbels of snow-white, tiny daisy-like flowers, tinged with pink at times. Soft, pungent leaves which clasp the stem at the base are alternate, bipinnatifid with finely cut segments. Throughout the world, in waste places, field, pastures, meadows, roadsides.

Use: Medicinal actions: Diaphoretic, astringent, tonic, hemostatic, stimulant and mild aromatic. Leaf or flower tea, a remedy for fevers, colds, to promote sweating, reduce high blood pressure, for hemorrhoids, nosebleeds, stomach ulcers, menstruation problems. Flowers treat eczema, catarrh from allergies. A decoction of the whole plant, used for bleeding piles, kidney disorders. Should be taken in small doses, Avoid during pregnancy A poultice of the fresh plant or infusion for a bath wash, used externally for muscle pain, joint inflammation. Root, chewed for toothache, gum problems, especially when steeped in whiskey or rum.

YELLOW DOCK (Rumex crispus)
dock, curly Dock

Description: Perennial, growing from a deep, yellow root, alternate basal leaves, wavy edged and blue-green. Leaves on the flower stalk, similar to those at the base but half the size. Tall flower spikes of inconspicuous greenish flowers are followed by 3-winged fruits which turn dark brown in the fall. A common weed, throughout North America in waste places and fields..

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Parts used are the young leaves for cooked greens. If bitter, cook in 2 or more changes of water. Rich in Vitamins A, C. Actions: Astringent, chologogue, tonic. Leaf tea, for fevers, inflammation, scurvy. Root tea used for constipation or diarrhea, excessive menstrual bleeding, skin diseases, arthritis, indigestion, liver congestion, poor digestion, jaundice, skin eruptions, nervousness, laxative or mild astringent tonic, blood purifier and skin problems. Use in small doses.

YUCCA (Yucca glauca)
Soapweed

Description: A blue-green perennial, 2-4 ft. tall. Leaves are in a rosette. They are stiff, swordlike, rounded on the back with margins rolled in. Stalks, erect with many, showy bell-like cream flowers at the tips. Throughout North America in dry soils, most common in high desert areas.

Use: Edible, Medicinal. Pulpy part of the fruits, a source of food when baked or boiled. The part that lathers up for soap is toxic and not used for food, unless washed, parboiled, crushed etc.to get rid of the saponins. Actions: Antifungal, antitumor, antiarthritic. American Indians poulticed the root on inflammations to stop bleeding, as a steam bath for sprains, broken limbs. Root tea for pain, joint inflammations. Saponins, in roots possess long-lasting soapin action, for washing, shampoos for dandruff, baldness. 1 cup chopped fresh or dried root, boiled in 1 1/2 cups water till suds form. Root compound, toxic to lower life forms. Use with caution.


BASIC GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS

Achene. A small, dry, one-seeded fruit which does not regularly open, such as a seed
pod or anther spontaneously.
Acuminate. Tapering gradually to a point at the apex.
Acute. Coming sharply to a point at the apex
Aggregate. Fruit, formed by the coherence of pistils which were distinct in the flower
(as in a blackberry)
Alternate. Not opposite to each other.
Annual. Only one years duration.
Anther. The part of the stamen that produces pollen; usually borne on a slender or flat
stalk.
Aril. The outer covering or appendage of some seeds.
Ascending. Rising gradually upward from a prostrate base.
Awn. A bristle-like characteristic of the spikelets, as in some grasses.
Aixil. The angle formed by a stem with a leaf, stalk, branch or flower stalk growing from
it.
Axillary. Growing from an axil.
Axis. The main stem of a plant, central line of development, or growth.
Berry. A stoneless, soft and pulpy fruit and formed from a single ovary.
Biennial. Of two years duration.
Bilabiate. Two lipped.
Bipinate. A leaf, twice-pinnate, or twice -compound
Blade. The expanded or flat part of the leaf.
Bloom . A powdery or waxy coating on leaves, stems or fruit.
Bract. A small, sometimes scale-like leaf near the base of a flower or flower cluster or a
spore case.
Bulb. A thick, rounded, underground organ with fleshy scales or coats, as in an onion.
Calyx. The outer parts (sepals) of a flower, usually green and leafy. They may be joined
or separated and form a sup-like or tube-like envelope enclosing the other parts of the
flower.
Campanulate. Bell-shaped.
Capillary. Collected into a head or dense cluster, head-shaped.
Capsule. A dry fruit that opens along two or more lines then mature, composed of more
than one carpel and arises from a compound pistil, as in legumes.
Carpel. The wall of a simple pistil (ovary) or part of the wall of a compound pistil.

Catkin. A spike-like flower cluster which bears scaly bracts and petalless, unisexual
flowers.
Cauline. Relating to or growing on a stem.
Chartaceous. A papery texture
Circinate. Coiled from the tip downwards.
Clasping. Completely or partly surrounding the stem.
Clavate. Club-shaped; thickened toward the apex.
Cleft. The margin of a leaf indented at least halfway to the midvein; more deeply
than when it is lobed, but not as deep as when it is divided.
Clustered.Where several leaves grow from a node, or whorled leaves which are grouped
so close between nodes the pattern is not obvious; fruits in a cluster of berries.
Compound. Made up of two or more definable parts, joined together.
Cone. The dry, multiple fruit of pines, firs, etc., that bear the seeds.
Confluent. Running together; blended into one.
Conic. Cone-shaped.
Coniferous.
Connivent. Converging or coming together, but not united.
Cordate. Heart-shaped, with the point at the apex (upward)
Corm. A short, thick, solid underground base of a stem. (often miscalled a bulb).
Corolla. The petals of a flower; inner of two series of floral leaves; they may be separate
or joined in varying degrees.
Corona. Crown, coronet; any appendage which stands out from the petals, and together
form a ring around the center of the flower.
Corymb. A generally flat-topped flower cluster with stems arising at different levels.
Cotyledon. Seed-leaf; the primary leaf or leaves in the embryo.
Creeping. Stems which grow flat on or beneath the ground and rooting.
Crenate.
Crown. See corona.
Cryptogams. Plants which do not bear seeds, such as mosses and fungi.
Culm. The hollow stem of grasses and bamboos.
Cyme. A usually flat inflorescence whose central or terminal flower opens first.
Deciduous. Falling off (leaves) at the close of a growing period.
Decompound. Reclining, but having an ascending tip.
Decumbent. Spontaneously opening and allowing the contents to be discharged
Dehiscent. Spontaneously opening and allowing the contents to be discharged.
Dentate. Sharply toothed, with the teeth pointing out straight from the margin.
Dioecious plants. The male and female parts are found on separate plants.

Diskflower. In the central head of a composite, which are tubular and lack a flattened
extension; such as the tiny yellow flowers making up the center of a sunflower or daisy.
Dissected. Cut or divided into numerous segments.
Divided. A leaf which is cleft to the base or to the midrib.
Drupe. A fleshy fruit containing a single seed in a hard nut or stone, as a cherry or peach.
Elliptic. Usually narrowly ovate, with the outline of an ellipse.
Entire. Without divisions, lobes, or teeth.
Filament. The stalk
Floret. A small flower in a flower head or other cluster.
Foliate. Leaf-like.
Frond. The leaf of a fern.
Follicle. A dry fruit that opens along one side or lengthwise line when mature.
Fruit. The seed-bearing part of the plant; ripened ovary.
Funnel-form. A funnel shaped, expanding gradually upward.
Glaborous. Not hairy.
Glandular. Having glands, which secrete sticky substances.
Glaucous. Covered with bloom.
Glabose. Approximately spherical.
Grain. Achene-like fruit, but with seed not loose.
Head. A flower spike or raceme shortened to form a compact, flattened to globose cluster.
Herb. A plant that has no woody tissue and that dies down to the ground at the end of a
growing season
Herbaceous. A plant organ, non-woody, soft and leafy; also soft branches before they
become woody; dying down each
Hip. The fruit of the rose; a fleshy receptacle.
Imbricate. Overlapping, like roof shingles.
Incised. Sharply and irregularly cut.
Inflorescence. The way flowers are arranged in a cluster; a flower cluster.
Involucre. A circle of bracts; always present around the heads of the composites; often
conspicuous in the parsley family.
Irrregular. A flower in which one or more of the organs of the same series are unlike the
rest.
Keel. The two lover petals, joined. (as in the pea family).
Lanceolate. Widening to a maximum near the base and tapering to a point at the apex.


Latex. The milky sap of certain plants.
Leaf. A vegetative organ which, when complete, consists of a flat blade, a petiole or
stalk, and usually two small leafy appendages at the base of the petiole.
Leaflet. A division or part of a compound leaf.
Linear. Long and very narrow, having nearly parallel sides.
Lip. One of the parts in a corolla or calyx divided into two unequal parts, like the odd
petal in an orchid.
Lobe. A part or division, especially when rounded, of an organ.
Monoecious plants. Bearing male and female parts in different flowers but on the same
plant.
Node. A joint where a leaf grows or can grow.
Obovate. The broad end upward.
Obtuse. Blunt, or rounded.
Oval. Broadly elliptic.
Ovary. The part of the pistil containing the seeds.
Ovate. Shaped like an egg, with the narrow end at the apex.
Ovoid. Ovate.
Palmate. Compounded, divided, lobed, or ribbed so that the divisions spread out like
fingers.
Panicle. A raceme compounded by branching.
Parasitic. Growing on and getting nourishment from another living plant.
Parted. Nearly cleft, but not quite, to the base.
Pedicel. The stalk of a single flower in a flower cluster.
Peduncle. The stalk of a flower cluster or a solitary cluster.
Petiole. The leafstalk.
Pinate. A leaf which is compound, with the leaflets arranged on each side of a common
petiole.
Pinnatifid. Pinnately cleft.
Pistil. The female reproduction organ of a flower.
Plumose. Feathery.
Pod. Any dry fruit which splits open.
Pollen. Minute grains, produced in flowering plants in an anther, which when carried
to an appropriate stigma, stimulate the formation of fruit and seed.
Pome. A core fruit, such as an apple.
Procumbent. Growing along the ground without rooting, and having ascending tips.
Punctate. Having translucent spots or depressions.
Puberulent. Covered with fine, short, almost imperceptible down.


Pubescent. Hairs, usually soft and downy.
Raceme. An elongated flower cluster or flowers which are arranged along a common stem,
in many species each growing from the axil of a bract; the youngest at the top.
Radiate. Composed of many ray flowers
Rayflower. One of the flattened petal-like, usually colored, outer flowers encircling the
disk, as in petals of a daisy.
Receptacle. The end of the stem or stalk on which the flower parts are borne.
Reniform. Kidney-shaped.
Revolute. Rolled backward from both sides.
Rhizome. An underground portion of the stem which produces leaves on the upper side
and roots on the lower; different from a root in that it has buds, nodes and scaly leaves;
rootstock.
Rootstalk. Rhizome or a root-like stem growing underground from which regular stems
may grow up into the air.
Rosette. A circular or spiral arrangement of leaves growing from a center or crown.
Sagittate. Shaped like an arrow head, with lobes pointing backward.
Samara. A winged fruit that does not split spontaneously, like a maple.
Scale. A small, usually dry leaf that is closely pressed against another organ.
Scape. A leafless flower stalk that grows from the ground.
Sepal. A leaf or division of the calyx.
Serrate. Saw-toothed, with the teeth pointing toward the apex.
Sessile. Having no stalk.
Sheath. An expanded or tubular structure that partially encloses a stem or other organ.
Simple. Of one piece. Leaves not compounded; stem, flower clusters not branched.
Solitary. A thick stem bearing small, crowded, stalkless flowers; a fleshy spike
Spadix. A fleshy spike.
Spathe. One or two bracts enclosing a flower cluster, especially a spadix.
Spatulate - A narrow end at the base, like a spoon.
Spike. A flower cluster in which sessile flowers grow along part of the length of the
peduncle.
Spine. A sharp woody or ridged, outgrowth from the stem, leaf, etc.
Spur. A slender, hollow projection from a petal or sepal.
Spurred. Possessing a hollow saclike or tubular extension of a floral organ.
Stamen. The male or pollen-bearing organ of a flower.
Strobile. A cone or conelike structure.


Style. The slender, elongated part of a pistil.
Taproot. A single main root that grows vertically into the ground.
Terminal. Occurring at or growing from the end opposite the base.
Ternate. Divided or arranged in threes.
Trifoliate. Having three leaves.
Trifoliolate. Having three leaflets.
Tuber. A thick, fleshy part, usually of a rootstock (there is not a sharp distinction among
rhizome, corm or tuber).
Umbel. A more or less flat-topped flower cluster in which the pedicels (rays) come from
a common plant.
Undulate. Wavy or wavy-margined.
Verticillate. Arranged in whorls.
Villous. Bearing long, loose, soft hairs.
Viscid. Sticky.
Whorl. A circular arrangement of three or more leaves, flowers or other parts at the same
point or level.
Woolly. Having curled hairs which may be tangled together.
Zygomorphic. Irregular, bilaterally symmetric.


DEFINITIONS OF MEDICAL ACTIONS

ABORTIFACIENT - Induces or causes premature expulsion of the fetus.
ACRID - Irritating or pungent to the skin.
ALTERATIVE - Producing a gradual beneficial change in the body without ?
ANALGESIC - Also called anodyne, a drug which relieves or takes away pain
ANAPHRODISIAC - Diminishes sexual desire or potency.
ANODYNE - Soothes or relieves pain
ANTHELMINTIC - Also referred to as vermicide or vermifuge. A medicine that expels worms.
ANTIBIOTIC - Destroying or arresting the growth of micro-organisms.
ANTICOAGULANT - Preventing blood clotting.
ANTIEMETIC - Counteracting nausea and relieving vomiting.
ANTIHYDROTIC - Reducing or suppressing perspiration.
ANTILITHIC - Reducing, suppressing, or dissolving stones.
ANTIONCHOTIC - Reducing swelling.
ANTISEPTIC - Destroying or diminishing bacteria.
ANTISPASMODIC - Relieving or aiding in spasms and cramps.
ANTITUSSIVE - Relieving coughs.
APERIENT - A mild stimulant for bowels; a gentle purgative.
APHRODISIAC - Producing arousing or increasing sexual desire or potency.
AROMATIC - A substance having an agreeable odor and stimulating qualities.
ASTRINGENT - Contracting organic tissue, reducing secretions or discharges.
BALSAMIC - A soothing or healing agent from exudations prepared from various trees.
BITTER TONIC - For temporary loss of appetite and stimulant of saliva and gastric juices in digestion.
CALMATIVE - A mild sedative or tranquilizing effect.
CARDIAC - Stimulating and affecting the heart.
CARMINITIVE - Expelling gas (flatulence) from the intestines.
CATHARTIC - The emptying of the bowels; laxative.
CAUSTIC - Destroys tissue.
CHOLAGOGUE - Increases flow of bile into the intestines.
COAGULANT - Inducing clotting of the blood.
DEMULCENT - Soothing irritated tissue, particularly the mucous membrane.
DEPRESSANT - Lessening the nervous or functional activity; opposite of stimulant.
DEPURATIVE - Cleansing and purifying the system, especially the blood.
DETERGENT -Cleansing wounds and sores of diseased or dead matter.
DIAPHORETIC - Promoting perspiration; sudorific.
DISCUTIENT - Dissolving and removing tumors.
DIURETIC - Increasing the secretion and expulsion of urine.
EMETIC - Produces vomiting.
EMMENAGOGUE - Promoting menstrual flow.
EMOLLIENT - Softening and soothing to inflamed areas.
EXANTHEMATOUS - Relating to skin diseases or eruptions.
EXPECTORANT - Promotes discharge of mucus from the respiratory passages.
FEBRIGUGE - Reducing or eliminating fevers.

GALACTOGOGUE - Encourages or increases the secretion of milk.
HEMOSTATIC - Stops bleeding.
HEPATIC - Acting on the liver
LAXATIVE - Promoting evacuation of the bowels; a mild purgative.
MUCILAGINOUS - A gummy or gelatinous substance soothing to inflamed areas.
NAUSEANT - Producing the inclination to vomit.
NEPHRITIC - Promoting kidney funstion.
NERVINE - Producing a calming or soothing effect on the nerves and nervous system.
OPTHALMICUM - A remedy for disease of the eye.
OXYTOCIC - Stimulating contraction of the uterine muscle for speeding up childbirth.
PECTORAL - A remedy for pulmonary or other chest diseases.
PURGATIVE - Promoting vigorous bowel evacuation.
REFRIGERANT - Lowering abnormal body heat.
RESOLVENT - Dissolving and removing of tumors.
RESTORATIVE - Restoring consciousness or normal physiological activity.
RUBIFACIENT - A gentle local irritant that produces reddening of the skin.
SIALOGOGUE - Stimulating the secretion of saliva.
STIMULANT - Exciting or quickening the activity of physiological processes.
STOMACHIC - Strengthening, stimulating or toning the stomach.
STYPTIC - Arresting hemorrhage and bleeding by contracting the blood vessels; astringent.
SUDORIFIC - Produces and increases perspiration.
TONIC - Strengthening or invigorating organs.
VASOCONSTRICTOR - Narrowing the blood vessels, to raise the blood pressure.
VASODILATOR - Widening the blood vessels, to lower blood pressure.
VERMICIDE - Destroying of intestinal worms.
VERMIFUGE - Causing the expulsion of intestinal worms.
VESICANT - Produces blisters.
VULNERARY - An application for wounds.


GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR GATHERING
AND USING WILD EDIBLE PLANTS

· A true grass herb always has jointed stems. Their seeds are always edible; however, do not use if grain heads have black fungus on them.
· Many nuts are edible including beechnut, butternut, chestnut, filbert, hazelnut, hickory, pinon, sweet acorn and walnuts. Avoid eating the nuts and seeds of fruits; some are poisonous.
· The inner bark of many trees is edible and nutritious. After removing the outer bark, the inner bark can be stripped or scraped from the trunk and eaten fresh, dried or cooked. Best in the spring. Remember, the use of a root or the live bark of a plant means its destruction, unless it is an annual or biennial that has had a chance to reproduce.
· A tea of chopped needles from the fir, pine, spruce or hemlock tree is good and contains Vit.C. Other plants containing this vitamin: rose hips, violet and strawberry leaves
· In general there is more food value in roots and tubers than the parts of the plant above; however, some roots, tubers tend to be toxic when raw. Squeeze out juice, cook pulp.
· ground. Peanuts, below the ground are good raw or cooked.
· Avoid plants with milky saps except those you are familiar with, like dandelions, wild figs, mangoes, papaya, breadfruit.
· The succulent parts of all palms are edible. The young curled shoots of ferns and bamboos are good.
· Avoid plants that resemble beans, cucumbers, melons or parsnips. Some are very poisonous
· Cattail root and young shoots are excellent eating.
· Plants with red, yellow, orange, dark or soapy-tasting sap or sap which turns black quickly on exposure to air, should be avoided.
· No plant resembling dill, parsley, parsnips or with carrot-like foliage should be eaten
· Most blue and black berries are edible. Sometimes red berries are but white berries usually are toxic. Berries resembling strawberries, raspberries, blackberries are good as are wild figs of any color.
· Avoid gathering herbs near orchards or areas where insecticides have been used or within 50 feet of roads where car exhaust has settled on plants.
· Just because an animal eats a plant, does not mean it is safe and visa versa.
· Do not eat mushrooms unless you are used to eating them and they are accurately identified. They contain little food value and can cause agonizing death.
· One hazard of eating raw plants is that some insects will spend part of their life cycle on the leaves, such as liver flukes on watercress. Wash thoroughly and inspect before using. Cook if you are not sure.
· When trying a plant that has not been positively identified. Place very small amount inside lover lip, taste for soapy, butter, acid, burning taste for 5 min. Increase amount every 6-10 hrs. If no ill effects in 24 hrs. it is safe, cut continue with caution.

A Short Guideline When Using Herbs

· Be sure identification of plant you are picking is accurate.
· If herb, using, makes you sick, take less or do not use.
· If herb is not helping, use more or eliminate.
· Trust your judgement and use wisdom.
· Stimulating herbs can also irritate. Those that help, can be painful.
· Just because it's "natural" doesn't mean it is good for you.
· If you don't get better, seek other medical help.
· Pick only what you need.

COMMON POISONOUS PLANTS

PLANTS IN FIELDS - buttercups; nightshades; jimson weed
PLANTS IN SWAMP OR MOIST AREAS - water hemlock
PLANTS IN WOODED AREAS - jack-in-the-pulpit; moonseed; mayapple
TREES AND SHRUBS - some cherries; oaks; red elderberry; black locust
VEGETABLE, GARDEN PLANTS - potato leaves, rhubarb leaf blade
FLOWER GARDEN PLANTS - larkspur; monkshood; autumn crocus; star- of-Bethlehem; lily-of-the-valley; iris; foxglove
HOUSE PLANTS - hyacinth, narcissus; daffodil; oleander; poinsettia; dieffenbachia; elephant ear; rosary pea; castor bean; mistletoe
ORNAMNENTAL PLANTS - daphne; wisteria; golden chain; laurels; rhododendron; azaleas; jassamine; lantana; yew


PREPARING HERBS FOR USE

INFUSION (tea)
Bring 1 cup of water to a boil, remove from heat. Add 1 tablespoon of fresh herb or 1 teaspoon dried or powdered herb and cover. Let steep 5- 20 minutes or as indicated. Strain, sweeten with honey, if needed, and give at body temperature or warmer.

DECOCTION: This method extracts the mineral salts and bitter principles of the herbs.
a. Add desired roots, barks, twigs, seeds, etc. to boiling water and tightly cover. Gently boil 10-15 minutes as needed. 1 tablespoon of the cut herb or 1 teaspoon of the powdered herb to 1 cup of water. Remove from heat and let stand 10 minutes.
b. Add flowers and green leaves to cold water and cover tightly. Bring to a boil and continue for 3-4 minutes.

COLD EXTRACT
Double the amount of herbs normally used for an infusion or decoction. Cover and allow
to stand for 10-12 hours in a nonmetal container. Strain and drink.

POULTICE
Fresh: Crush the fresh herb and apply to the affected part. Bandage on. Leave several hours or overnight. If a hot poultice is desired, steep the herb, cover with a dry cloth. Change as it cools.
Dried: Mix herb with cornmeal or flaxseed to make a thick paste. Drop into just enough actively boiling water to hold together. Spread on folded cloth and apply. Cover with dry flannel. Do not warm over a poultice once used.

FOMENTATION
Soak a cloth or towel in an infusion or decoction, wring out the excess and apply as hot as possible to the affected area. A fomentation has about the same applications as a poultice but is generally less active in its effect.

TINCTURE
Dried herbs: Use 6 oz of cut herb to 1 quart of apple cider vinegar or everclear brand 100 proof alcohol. Advantage of using alcohol is that it extracts the properties a great deal more and preserves longer. Doses are usually only a few drops
Fresh herbs: Pack herb into dark, wide-mouthed bottle and cover the herbs with either preservative. Whether dried or fresh herbs, leave in bottle for 10-14 days, shake good twice a day. Strain, press and put in dark bottle. Seal and label.

OIL OF HERBS
Place herb in top of double boiler. Cover with oil (olive oil best). Cook on low heat, with lid on, for about 3 hours or until leaves etc. are crisp. Press oil from herb. Bottle and label. Keep in dark, cool place.
Cover herb with olive oil and place in hot sun for about 7 days.

OINTMENTS AND SALVES

  • Mix 1 part powdered herb to 4 parts hot petroleum jelly, lard or similar substances.
  • Add beeswax as needed to get a firm consistency. Melt the mixture by heating slowly, and stir until completely blended. A little gum benzoin or a drop of tincture of benzoin per ounce of fat (when a perishable fat is used as a base) will help to preserve the ointment.
  • In the Oven: Place chopped herb in oven-ware dish or pan, cover herbs with melted lard, mutton tallow, goose grease or any pure grease (not drippings). Mix well and put in 200 degree oven until leaves, flowers, buds etc. are crisp, about 1-3 hours. Strain through a loose cotton cloth, sieve or colander. Add beeswax which has been put in oven to melt so heated temperatures will be approximately the same. Beeswax is included for the purpose of solidifying a salve or ointment (about 1 oz to 1 lb lard). When too much wax is added the salve may set up quite firm, making it hard to apply on painful sores or scratches. Stir vigorously or whip with rotary beaters until cool. Beating action prevents a separation of the wax and fat. Spoon into jars and store in cool place as the fat will go rancid if kept too warm.
  • On the stove: Procedure is the same except the cooking process is accomplished by placingt on top of stove over low heat. Need not cover pan. Stir occasionally. Note: aluminum ware should never be used for salve making.


ORGANIZING CARDS IN A FILE BOX

To assist in the filing of Nature's Medicine Chest plant ID and information cards

* File alphabetically according to common name of plant into a 4x6 file chest, using
index tabs (not included).
· Cross reference, to indicate other uses in that plant, referring back to the photo card.
· Add you own healthful hints to the chest as you find additional information.
· Keep tract of the nature's herb remedies that especially helped you or a particular person in the family. For instance golden seal may help one with congestion where garlic may help another more effectively. If that information is not recorded, you may not remember when the problem comes up again in the future.


PLANTING HERBS
If the use of herbs become part of your way of life whether for tasty teas, flavoring of foods, edible useages? or as remedies in health problems, you should consider planting
the herbs you plan to be using (as you locate them in nurseries, meadows, roadsides, etc.) into your garden or home

PLANTING SUGGESTIONS
1. Seeds - Most perennial and annual herbs can be started from seeds in the fall or after danger of frost in the spring.
2. Roots - Transplanting the root will be more successful by keeping as much of the original dirt balled around it as possible, trying not to injure the fibrous roots. Place in appropriate size hole. Pat soil firmly around plant and water immediately.
3. Cuttings - or "slips" can be taken any time in the spring or summer during the active growing season. Using a sharp knife, razor blade or shears, cut from a strong new tip growth about 3-6 inches just below a leaf bud or node ( a stem that snaps off when bent sharply rather than one that bends is ideal). Remove foliage from lower half of stem before planting. Keep cuttings out of sun between two layers of damp cloth or paper towels to prevent from drying and wilting until planted. Add sand to soil (2 parts sand to 1 part soil). If planted in a can or pot be sure there is drainage.
4. Fertilizing - Herbs will appreciate well balanced fertilizer in moderation; soil that is poor will produce foliage that is sparse and has poor flavor. Too rich soil; however,
will generate lush growth with only small concentrations of oil in the leaves.
5. Water and Sun - It is best to keep herbs that require different amounts of water in separate areas. Some herbs do not require as much sun as others and can be planted near taller plants which filter direct sunlight to them.


TYPES OF HERBS
a. Annuals - plants that complete their life cycles in a single growing season or winter annuals which germinate from seed in the fall or early winter and quickly complete growth and mature the following spring.
b. Biennials - Plants that require two full growing seasons to develop flowers and mature seed. During the first season a short taproot is usually formed and only a rosette of leaves grow from the root-crown. During the second season, a leafy stem develops which produces flowers and seed.
c. Perennials - Plants that normally live for more than two years and usually do not produce seed until the second year or later. Some perennials produce woody stems which grow from year to year and consequently develop into shrubs or trees.

WHEN TO GATHER
ROOTS - Annual plants just previous to flowering; biennial plants soon after leaves have fallen tin the autumn of the first year; perennial plants after fall of leaves and flowers in the autumn.
LEAVES - Gather as soon as fully matured. Most potent before flowers appear or maturing of the fruit. Remember, biennials do not perfect leaves until second year.
FLOWERS - When about to open from the bud or immediately upon opening unless the buds are specifically needed, than gather when nicely formed.
BARK - Gather I n the spring when the sap is rising, or before flowering, or in the autumn after foliage has fallen.

HARVESTING SUGGESTIONS
THE HERB - Choose a sunny, dry morning just after the dew has dried from the leaves, but before the sun is hot. Some annuals may be harvested more than once.

SEED AND FLOWERS - As soon as the seed heads or capsules turn brown but before they fully ripen and scatter, cut entire seed head or stem into a paper bag. Do it on a warm, dry day. Seeds to be used for future planting should be harvested when seed capsules begin to yellow and are about ready to drop off. Flowers can be cut with a knife or pruning shears. Choose newly opened ones that are bright and fresh.

ROOTS - Dig in late fall or spring. Wash dirt off. Cut in small pieces with scissors or shears. Let dry thoroughly in paper bag. Store in closed container.


METHODS FOR DRYING
Any way that exposes leaves, flowers, seeds or roots to warm, dry air that circulates freely to absorb moisture in a way that the oil are not destroyed. Sunlight will damage the leaves and flavor
a. Hang upside down, tie ends of stems together, especially good for herbs with long stems, 1-2 weeks. Cover with paper bag if in dusty area.
b. On screens or trays
c. In dehydrator on very low heat or no heat, depending on thickness of herb

STORING
Store dried herbs in airtight containers. Label and date. Keep in dark, cool place. During first weeks after storing check to see if any moisture has formed inside the container. Use a mortar and pest, electric nut or coffee grinder to grind herbs into powder


SUGGESTIONS ON PRESSING AND PRESERVING SPECIMENS

GATHERING FROM THE FIELD
It is not always necessary to collect the roots, but is very important to have a sample of the flower and fruit. As the plant is cut or pulled, place it as soon as possible into a plastic bag to keep the moisture in or a container of some kind, if only a box, to keep the specimen intact as best as you can.

PRESSING
Place the plant inside a folded sheet of newspaper. If the plant is too long, bend the stem until it fits. When preserving a specimen such as a cactus slice a thin piece of the plant horizontally and place it between the newspaper; if you are in a very damp climate, you may want to use a blotter type paper. Next, put corrugated cardboard on both sides, with the direction of the corrugations going the shortest distance of the piece. This enables better ventilation. Using a rope, belt or some type of strap to secure the one or more specimens together, tie around the cardboard. You may want to put some plywood the same size as the cardboard to put on either end of the cardboard, before tying, for more even pressure.


ENTERING YOUR SPECIMEN
When the plant has had sufficient time to dry, remove and place it on a sheet of paper and secure it with Elmer's or Mod Podge type glue. Let drops of the glue hit strategic areas of the plant and it will run through or down the sides of the plant and on to the paper, drying clear. Write information concerning the plant in a lower corner of the paper. Your entered specimen will be accepted at any college herbarium for their libraries if the data includes: date, county, state, location and your name.

REFERENCE BOOKS
There are many excellent books on alternative health.
The following are those we are familiar with and have
found to be extremely informative and helpful:

A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants - Peterson
A Modern Herbal - Grieve
Dr. Mom - Ellis
Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants and Herbs - Foster, Duke
Edible Wild Plants - Medsger
HART (Herb formulas) - Clemment (Nature's Sunshine Products)
Heal Your Body - Hay
Healthy Healing - Page
Herbs - Bremness
Herbs to the Rescue (Herbal First Aid) - King
Know your Poisonous Plants - James
Medicinal Plants Series - Moore
Mother Nature's CD library - Packard Technologies
Prescription for Nutritional Healing - Balch
School of Natural Healing - Christopher's Publications
The Herb Book - Lust
Wild Edible Plants of the Western U. S. - Kirk

Copyright © 2007 LM Publications
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